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The IPCC has reasserted the strong influence of anthropogenic CO2 contributions on global climate change and highlighted the polar-regions as highly vulnerable. With these predictions the cold adapted fauna endemic to the Southern Ocean, which is dominated by fishes of the sub-order Notothenioidei, will face considerable challenges in the near future. Recent physiological studies have demonstrated that the synergistic stressors of elevated temperature and ocean acidification have a considerable, although variable, impact on notothenioid fishes. The present study explored the transcriptomic response of Pagothenia borchgrevinki to increased temperatures and pCO2 after 7, 28 and 56days of acclimation. We compared this response to short term studies assessing heat stress alone and foretell the potential impacts of these stressors on P. borchgrevinki's ability to survive a changing Southern Ocean.
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The absorption spectrum of acetylene has been recorded at room temperature (296K) using high sensitivity Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy in the 7914 and 8252cm−1 interval. The noise equivalent absorption of the spectra is αmin∼5×10−11cm−1. A list of about 5600 absorption features was constructed. The smallest intensities are on the order of 10−29cm/molecule. A total of 1325 rovibrational lines of 12C2H2 were assigned by comparison with accurate predictions provided by a global effective operator model. In addition, 132 rovibrational lines of 12C13CH2 present in natural isotopic abundance were assigned on the basis of their published positions. The assigned 12C2H2 lines belong to 12 new and 6 already known bands, for which additional J-lines were assigned. The line intensities of the three cold bands of 12C13CH2 are reported for the first time. The new data will be valuable to refine the parameters of the global effective Hamiltonian and dipole moments of 12C2H2 in the region.
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Results of the catalytic hydrogenation of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzoic acid (TNBA) in the presence of 1% Pd/C catalyst with analysis of the reaction products at the steps corresponding to the consumption of 1, 3, 5, 6, 8 and 9mols of hydrogen per mol of TNBA are presented. Numerous reaction intermediates were identified using the 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy; the reaction mixture composition was assessed quantitatively at different steps of the hydrogenation. The data obtained were used to propose a scheme of TNBA transformations over the Pd/C catalyst in the aqueous-phase reaction conditions. The data on the component composition at different steps of TNBA hydrogenation are important to understand the process chemistry, to explore the possibility of selective formation of different types of intermediate nitroamino compounds, and to synthesize high-performance catalysts for the hydrogenation of aromatic polynitro compounds.
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The torsional and rotation–torsion spectra of the doubly deuterated species of methanol CD2HOH have been analyzed using submillimeter wave, terahertz, and far infrared spectra. 101 torsional subbands, with subband centers ranging from 2.3 to 626cm−1, were assigned. Analysis of these yielded kinetic energy and hindering potential parameters of the torsional Hamiltonian describing the large amplitude internal rotation of the CD2H methyl group with respect to the hydroxyl group. 3271 rotation and rotation–torsion transitions, involving the 24 torsional levels up to e1 with 3⩽K⩽10, were assigned and fitted approximating the rotational energy of each torsional level with a Taylor-type expansion in J(J+1). The rotational structure of 48 torsional subbands involving torsional levels higher than e1 has also been analyzed. In most cases, only the Q branch could be observed and assigned.
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The 13CH4 absorption spectrum has been recorded at 296K and 80K in the Icosad range between 6600 and 7700cm−1. The achieved noise equivalent absorption of the spectra recorded by differential absorption spectroscopy (DAS) is about αmin≈1.5×10−7cm−1. Two empirical line lists were constructed including 17,792 and 24,139 lines at 80K and 296K, respectively. For comparison, the HITRAN database provides only 1040 13CH4 lines in the region determined from methane spectra with natural isotopic abundance. Empirical values of the lower state energy level, Eemp, were systematically derived from the intensity ratios of the lines measured at 80K and 296K. Overall 10,792 Eemp values were determined providing accurate temperature dependence for most of the 13CH4 absorption in the region (93% and 82% at 80K and 296K, respectively). The quality of the derived empirical values of the lower state rotational quantum number, Jemp, is illustrated by their clear propensity to be close to an integer. A good agreement is achieved between our small Jemp values, with previous accurate determinations obtained by applying the 2T method to jet and 80K spectra. The line lists at 296K and 80K which are provided as Supplementary material will be used for future rovibrational assignments based on accurate variational calculations.
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This article considers what happens when sound is understood as affect. It begins by recounting a minor event in which sound moved my body. I use this as a starting point for defining sonic affect as the vibrational movement of bodies of all kinds, moving away from anthropocentric notions of sound based on human perception. The vibration of bodies can be understood as a ‘base layer’ of sound, which may activate or accrue layers of feeling, significance and meaning, but which is not reducible to them. Developing this conceptualisation of sonic affect, I argue that: (i) there are repeating affective tendencies of sound, but these unfold differently in context; (ii) sonic affect exercises power over bodies, sometimes by combining with meaning; and (iii) sound propagates affect through space in distinctive ways, some of which I discuss. These arguments are grounded in numerous examples, reflecting the variety of both sound and affect.
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Ovarian carcinoma is the fifth-leading cause of cancer death among women in the United States. Major reasons for this persistent mortality include the poor understanding of the underlying biology and a lack of reliable biomarkers. Previous studies have shown that aberrantly expressed MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in carcinogenesis and tumor progression by post-transcriptionally regulating gene expression. However, the interference of miRNAs in tumorigenesis is quite complicated and far from being fully understood. In this work, by an integrative analysis of mRNA expression, miRNA expression and clinical data published by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), we studied the modularity and dynamicity of miRNA–mRNA interactions and the prognostic implications in high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas. With the top transcriptional correlations (Bonferroni-adjusted p-value<0.01) as inputs, we identified five miRNA–mRNA module pairs (MPs), each of which included one positive-connection (correlation) module and one negative-connection (correlation) module. The number of miRNAs or mRNAs in each module varied from 3 to 7 or from 2 to 873. Among the four major negative-connection modules, three fit well with the widely accepted miRNA-mediated post-transcriptional regulation theory. These modules were enriched with the genes relevant to cell cycle and immune response. Moreover, we proposed two novel algorithms to reveal the group or sample specific dynamic regulations between these two RNA classes. The obtained miRNA–mRNA dynamic network contains 3350 interactions captured across different cancer progression stages or tumor grades. We found that those dynamic interactions tended to concentrate on a few miRNAs (e.g. miRNA-936), and were more likely present on the miRNA–mRNA pairs outside the discovered modules. In addition, we also pinpointed a robust prognostic signature consisting of 56 modular protein-coding genes, whose co-expression patterns were predictive for the survival time of ovarian cancer patients in multiple independent cohorts.
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The modulation of auditory event-related potentials (ERP) by attention generally results in larger amplitudes when stimuli are attended. We measured the P1-N1-P2 acoustic change complex elicited with synthetic overt (second formant, F2Δ=1000Hz) and subtle (F2Δ=100Hz) diphthongs, while subjects (i) attended to the auditory stimuli, (ii) ignored the auditory stimuli and watched a film, and (iii) diverted their attention to a visual discrimination task. Responses elicited by diphthongs where F2 values rose and fell were found to be different and this precluded their combined analysis. Multivariate analysis of ERP components from the rising F2 changes showed main effects of attention on P2 amplitude and latency, and N1-P2 amplitude. P2 amplitude decreased by 40% between the attend and ignore conditions, and by 60% between the attend and divert conditions. The effect of diphthong magnitude was significant for components from a broader temporal window which included P1 latency and N1 amplitude. N1 latency did not vary between attention conditions, a finding that may be related to stimulation with a continuous vowel. These data show that a discernible P1-N1-P2 response can be observed to subtle vowel quality transitions, even when the attention of a subject is diverted to an unrelated visual task.
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Paleoecological and faunal-based paleoenvironmental studies rely on fossil assemblages that have high fidelity to the once-living faunas and to the target environment. However, many sedimentary records contain multiple depositional facies, transported sediments with their associated fossils, and varying degrees of taphonomic alteration, which can confound interpretations. Here we combine measures of compositional fidelity, modern analog faunal methods, sedimentary analyses, and taphonomic scoring to examine the history of sediment transport and environmental change in a ~60,000year continental slope record from the Gulf of Alaska using benthic foraminiferal assemblages. These assemblages generally have good compositional fidelity to modern faunas in the Gulf of Alaska, but are not necessarily faithful to the modern continental slope. Fossil benthic foraminiferal assemblages with modern analogs from shelf and slope environments are intercalated downcore suggesting episodes of sedimentary transport to the slope site. Fossil assemblages without modern analogs in this record appear ecologically, rather than taphonomically, derived and thus suggest that the range of past environmental variation in the Gulf of Alaska is not captured by modern spatial variation. These no-analog fossil assemblages are allied with analog assemblages using similarity in taxonomic and sedimentary characteristics, permitting analysis of environmental change in shelf and slope settings from a single core. The faunal composition of the no-analog assemblages suggests the Gulf of Alaska slope experienced lower oxygen conditions in the past than observed in the modern gulf. Lower productivity is also suggested for some shelf samples, however geochemical proxy data are necessary to fully interpret the no-analog assemblages.
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This work develops guidance and tools to understand the performance, improve the design, and simplify the evaluation of naturally ventilated low-rise commercial buildings in warm and hot climates. We conducted ∼50,000 detailed energy and airflow simulations in 427 locations across Brazil, varying 55 parameters representing building morphology, fenestration, construction properties, internal gains, operating times, wind modifiers, flowpaths, window control, and soil traits. Comfort performance was quantified by the average annual fraction of occupied hours that exceeded the upper limit of an adaptive comfort zone, and investigated with sensitivity analysis and machine learning methods. Results indicated that, after climate, building size (both footprint area and number of stories) and internal gains were most influential and were positively associated with discomfort. Adding air movement with ceiling fans and providing for night ventilation both proved highly effective comfort interventions. Except for roof solar absorptance, opaque envelope changes, including increasing insulation or thermal mass, had only marginal impacts. A support vector regression metamodel, requiring 29 easily obtainable inputs plus a weather file, was fit to the simulation results and successfully validated (R2=0.97). The metamodel was developed as a simplified compliance path for naturally ventilated buildings to enhance Brazil’s commercial building performance labeling program, which, because it currently provides such a path only for air conditioned buildings, may discouraging decision-makers from considering even more efficient passive solutions. We use a case study to show how the metamodel, which we will distribute publicly, can also serve as a design tool, and demonstrate that modifying a small set of parameters can drastically improve thermal performance and achieve sustainable comfort in hot and warm climates.
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