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Axial head-rolling oscillation frequencies determined from 28 video sequences obtained from 13 individual shrikes.
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We study the atom-photon quantum interface with intracavity Rydberg-blocked atomic ensemble where the ground-Rydberg transition is realized by two-photon transition. Via theoretical analysis, we report our recent findings of the Jaynes-Cummings model on optical domain and robust atom-photon quantum gate enabled by this platform. The requirement on the implementation is mild which includes an optical cavity of moderately high finesse, typical alkali atoms such as Rb or Cs and the condition that cold atomic ensemble is well within the Rydberg blockade radius. The analysis focuses on the atomic ensemble's collective coupling to the quantized optical field in the cavity mode. We demonstrate its capability to serve as a controlled-PHASE gate between photonic qubits and matter qubits, where the photon frequency is endowed with a reasonably wide frequency dynamic range. The detrimental effects associated with several major decoherence factors of this system are also considered in the analysis.
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We study the atom-photon quantum interface with intracavity Rydberg-blocked atomic ensemble where the ground-Rydberg transition is realized by two-photon transition. Via theoretical analysis, we report our recent findings of the Jaynes-Cummings model on optical domain and robust atom-photon quantum gate enabled by this platform. The requirement on the implementation is mild which includes an optical cavity of moderately high finesse, typical alkali atoms such as Rb or Cs and the condition that cold atomic ensemble is well within the Rydberg blockade radius. The analysis focuses on the atomic ensemble's collective coupling to the quantized optical field in the cavity mode. We demonstrate its capability to serve as a controlled-PHASE gate between photonic qubits and matter qubits, where the photon frequency is endowed with a reasonably wide frequency dynamic range. The detrimental effects associated with several major decoherence factors of this system are also considered in the analysis.
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Background: The mode of waveform generation and circuit characteristics differ between high-frequency oscillators. It is unknown if this influences performance. Objectives: To describe the relationships between set and delivered pressure amplitude (ΔP), and the interaction with frequency and endotracheal tube (ETT) diameter, in eight high-frequency oscillators. Methods: Oscillators were evaluated using a 70-ml test lung at 1.0 and 2.0 ml/cm H2O compliance, with mean airway pressures (PAW) of 10 and 20 cm H2O, frequencies of 5, 10 and 15 Hz, and an ETT diameter of 2.5 and 3.5 mm. At each permutation of PAW, frequency and ETT, the set ΔP was sequentially increased from 15 to 50 cm H2O, or from 20 to 100% maximum amplitude (10% increments) depending on the oscillator design. The ΔP at the ventilator (ΔPVENT), airway opening (ΔPAO) and within the test lung (ΔPTRACH), and tidal volume (VT) at the airway opening were determined at each set ΔP. Results: In two oscillators the relationships between set and delivered ΔP were non-linear, with a plateau in ΔP thresholds noted at all frequencies (Dräger Babylog 8000) or ≥10 Hz (Dräger VN500). In all other devices there was a linear relationship between ΔPVENT, ΔPAO and ΔPTRACH (all r2 >0.93), with differing attenuation of the pressure wave. Delivered VT at the different settings tested varied between devices, with some unable to deliver VT >3 ml at 15 Hz, and others generating VT >20 ml at 5 Hz and a 1:1 inspiratory-to-expiratory time ratio. Conclusions: Clinicians should be aware that modern high-frequency oscillators exhibit important differences in the delivered ΔP and VT.
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The SPR technique is based on a complex optical phenomenon. When photon reaches the interface of two medium with different refractive indexes at a specific angle range, the resonant oscillation of surface plasmon generated by metal free electron can be induced. The resonance also requires that the frequency of incident photon matches the natural oscillating frequency of the surface plasmon. https://www.profacgen.com/surface-plasmon-resonance-spr-service.htm
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Background: The mode of waveform generation and circuit characteristics differ between high-frequency oscillators. It is unknown if this influences performance. Objectives: To describe the relationships between set and delivered pressure amplitude (ΔP), and the interaction with frequency and endotracheal tube (ETT) diameter, in eight high-frequency oscillators. Methods: Oscillators were evaluated using a 70-ml test lung at 1.0 and 2.0 ml/cm H2O compliance, with mean airway pressures (PAW) of 10 and 20 cm H2O, frequencies of 5, 10 and 15 Hz, and an ETT diameter of 2.5 and 3.5 mm. At each permutation of PAW, frequency and ETT, the set ΔP was sequentially increased from 15 to 50 cm H2O, or from 20 to 100% maximum amplitude (10% increments) depending on the oscillator design. The ΔP at the ventilator (ΔPVENT), airway opening (ΔPAO) and within the test lung (ΔPTRACH), and tidal volume (VT) at the airway opening were determined at each set ΔP. Results: In two oscillators the relationships between set and delivered ΔP were non-linear, with a plateau in ΔP thresholds noted at all frequencies (Dräger Babylog 8000) or ≥10 Hz (Dräger VN500). In all other devices there was a linear relationship between ΔPVENT, ΔPAO and ΔPTRACH (all r2 >0.93), with differing attenuation of the pressure wave. Delivered VT at the different settings tested varied between devices, with some unable to deliver VT >3 ml at 15 Hz, and others generating VT >20 ml at 5 Hz and a 1:1 inspiratory-to-expiratory time ratio. Conclusions: Clinicians should be aware that modern high-frequency oscillators exhibit important differences in the delivered ΔP and VT.
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This paper deals with the design and performance analysis of a ring oscillator using CMOS 45nm technology process in Cadence virtuoso environment. The design of optimal Analog and Mixed Signal (AMS) very large scale integrated circuits (VLSI) is a challenging task for the integrated circuit(IC) designer. A Ring Oscillator is an active device which is made up of odd number of NOT gates and whose output oscillates between two voltage levels representing high and low. There are a number of challenges ahead while designing the CMOS Ring Oscillator which are delay, noise and glitches. CMOS is the technology of choice for many applications, CMOS oscillators with low power, phase noise and timing jitter are highly desired. In this paper, we have designed a CMOS ring oscillator with nine stages.Previously, the researchers were unable to reduce the phase noise in ring oscillators substantially with nine stages. We have successfully reduced the phase noise to -6.4kdBc/Hz at 2GHz center frequency of oscillation.
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