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Lethal and sub lethal effects of fresh and old residues of azadirachtin, spinosad, Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Bt var. k), and deltamethrin, were evaluated at their recommended field doses against adult and immature stages of Trichogramma brassicae under in vitro conditions. The experiments were carried out at the Entomology section of Division of Crop Protection, ICAR Research Complex for NEH region, Umiam, Meghalaya, in 2012–2013. The effects of different pesticides were determined by bioassays using the residual film method, the diet contamination method, the pupal dip method and the topical application technique. The four pesticides were found harmful to adult T. brassicae after ingestion, however surface contact bioassays revealed that Bt var. k was the least toxic pesticide. Except Bt var. k, other three pesticides were found harmful also to the immature stages of T. brassicae and significantly affected parasitism potential, adult emergence, longevity of adults, and sex ratio of the progeny. Deltamethrin and azadirachtin were the most harmful, even after 15days of application. Spinosad was found to be relatively safe to T. brassicae after 15days of application. As Bt appeared to be the least toxic pesticide for T. brassicae, it could be used for the management of severe infestations of lepidopteran pests in cruciferous ecosystems.
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Phenolic acid composition, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities in leaves of four Kalanchoe (Crassulaceae) species were evaluated. Determination of phenolic acid contents were conducted by an optimized LC–ESI-MS/MS method. The results show that Kalanchoe daigremontiana Raym.-Hamet & H. Perrier (using ASE extraction) and Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Pers. contain the highest amounts of phenolic acids, while Kalanchoe nyikae Engl. the lowest ones. Among phenolic acids ferulic, caffeic and protocatechuic acids were occurring in the highest quantities in the analysed species. The greatest amounts of ferulic and protocatechuic acids were found in K. daigremontiana and K. pinnata. Moreover, the antiradical and cytotoxic activities of Kalanchoe extracts were investigated. All tested extracts possessed antioxidant activity. The obtained IC50 values (μg/mL) ranged from 49.9μg/mL to 1410μg/mL, indicating a large variation of the activity of the analysed extracts. Cytotoxicity assays revealed dose-dependent effects in the cells lines tested. Only K. pinnata extract showed a high cytotoxicity against the H-9 human T cell line. Other extracts (K. daigremontiana, Kalanchoe milloti, K. nyikae) showed more pronounced cytotoxicity towards J45.01 cells (human acute lymphoblastic leukaemia T cells).
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In light of the rapid increasing demand for high-precision ultrasonic technologies for damage detection in composite structures, it is necessary to give a further study on the ultrasonic attenuation characteristics, with consideration of the combined effects of material anisotropy and viscoelasticity, and the frequency characteristics of the individual attenuation component. In the present paper, based on the time-domain finite element analysis of ultrasonic wave propagation in a two-layered fiber/matrix composite material, a new method is presented. In the method, by means of extracting the individual attenuation components (viscoelastic attenuation, scattering attenuation due to interface defects, and energy dissipation at the interface) from the overall attenuation respectively, the variation behavior of them with material anisotropy and viscoelasticity, and incident wave frequency, are quantitatively evaluated. The change of proportion of individual attenuation components in overall attenuation under different conditions are also investigated. From the results, the energy loss at the interface is always a major part in ultrasonic attenuation characteristics. Each attenuation component shows frequency dependence, especially the viscoelastic attenuation and energy dissipation at the interface. The simulation results also clarified the detailed effect mechanism of material viscoelasticity and anisotropy on the attenuation characteristics, which will encourage the further development of attenuation measurements for damage detection in composite structures.
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This paper addresses a green transportation scheduling problem with realistic constraints widely existing in make-to-order manufacturing supply chains, such as pickup time and transport mode selections. The mathematical model of this problem is presented, which is formulated as a bi-objective mixed integer nonlinear program. The problem is simplified first by converting this program to a bi-objective integer nonlinear program. A novel evolution-strategy-based memetic Pareto optimization (ESMPO) approach is then developed to handle this new program, in which a multi-objective local search process is proposed to seek promising neighboring individuals and the faster nondominated sorting procedure is introduced into the memetic algorithm to perform multi-objective sorting. The performance of the proposed ESMPO approach is evaluated by numerical experiments based on industrial data and industrial-sized problems. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach can effectively solve the investigated problem by generating much better solutions than 3 other metaheuristic-based Pareto optimization approaches and the industrial method do.
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The majority of the textile dyes are harmful to the environment and potentially carcinogenic. Among strategies for their exclusion, the treatment of dye contaminated wastewater with fungal extract, containing lignin peroxidase (LiP), may be useful. Two fungi isolates, Pleurotus ostreatus (PLO9) and Ganoderma lucidum (GRM117), produced the enzymatic extract by fermentation in the lignocellulosic residue, Jatropha curcas seed cake. The extracts from PLO9 and GRM117 were immobilized on carbon nanotubes and showed an increase of 18 and 27-fold of LiP specific activity compared to the free enzyme. Also, LiP from both fungi extracts showed higher Vmax and lower Km values. Only the immobilized extracts could be efficiently reused in the dye decolourization, contrary, the carbon nanotubes became saturated and they should be discarded over time. This device may offer a final biocatalyst with higher catalytic efficiency and capability to be reused in the dye decolourization process.
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This study proposes an optimization model that simultaneously incorporates the selection of logistics infrastructure investments and subsidies for green transport modes to achieve specific CO2 emission targets in a regional logistics network. The proposed model is formulated as a bi-level formulation, in which the upper level determines the optimal selection of logistics infrastructure investments and subsidies for green transport modes such that the benefit–cost ratio of the entire logistics system is maximized. The lower level describes the selected service routes of logistics users. A genetic and Frank–Wolfe hybrid algorithm is introduced to solve the proposed model. The proposed model is applied to the regional logistics network of Changsha City, China. Findings show that using the joint scheme of the selection of logistics infrastructure investments and green subsidies is more effective than using them solely. Carbon emission reduction targets can significantly affect logistics infrastructure investments and subsidy levels.
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In dealing with the multiplicity problem of large dataset, clusters or families of hypotheses are often the units of interest. A scoring method is motivated in adopting a rejection space for p-values that are classified into spatial or labeled groups. A score that measures the benefits/costs of making a true/false discovery is computed and rejection space that maximizes the number of rejections with positive score is adopted. Renewal and boundary-crossing theories are used to compute the exceedance probability of the score. Level of strong group type I error control is validated using Monte Carlo and importance sampling methods. It is shown that the scoring method maintains detection power and achieves robustness against model deviation. The scoring method is applied on a copy number variation tumor dataset and short intervals of the chromosome with biological relevance are identified.
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In the course of a screening program on the seasonal phenol composition of wild Mediterranean medicinal and aromatic plants, broadly used for culinary purposes, Foeniculum vulgare Mill. was the focus of the present study. Hydroalcoholic extracts from fennel freeze-dried leaves, collected in different seasons along 2012 and 2013years, were quali-quantitatively analyzed through LC/MS/MS techniques. Winter extract contained, beyond several hydroxycinnamoyl quinic acids and flavonol glycosides, two chromone derivatives. Flavonol hexuronides were the main spring sample constituents. Phenol profile differences among the extracts influenced massively their bioactivity. When the antioxidant screening was performed, winter extract effectively scavenged DPPH and ABTS+ and reduced Fe3+. Although all the extracts did not show cytotoxicity, they were differently able to exert cytoprotection in H2O2-oxidized cell systems and to affect COX-2 gene expression in THP-1 cells. The most active one was winter extract, which inhibited COX-2 expression by 40%, whereas spring sample showed a weak pro-inflammatory capability.
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La enfermedad de Alzheimer de inicio precoz (EAIP), definida como la que se manifiesta antes de los 65 años de edad, muestra ciertas características diferentes de la enfermedad de Alzheimer de inicio tardío (EAIT). Nuestro objetivo fue analizar los trabajos más actuales que comparan la clínica, la neuropsicología, la patología, la genética y la neuroimagen de la EAIP y la EAIT, para determinar si nos enfrentamos a dos enfermedades distintas o a variantes de una misma entidad. Como resultado, hallamos consistencia en algunas características diferenciales entre los 2 cuadros clínicos. Fundamentalmente, la EAIP comienza con mayor frecuencia con una clínica atípica; la valoración cognitiva muestra mayor afectación de las funciones ejecutiva y visuoespacial y de las praxias, y menor afectación de la memoria; la neuropatología evidencia mayor densidad y una distribución más difusa de la patología tipo Alzheimer; los estudios de neuroimagen estructural y funcional muestran una afectación cortical mayor y más difusa, afectando al neocórtex (especialmente el precuneus). En conclusión, las evidencias actuales hacen pensar que la EAIP y la EAIT son variantes clínicas de una misma entidad, que en el caso de la EAIT se ve influida probablemente por factores asociados al envejecimiento.
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Surprisingly, a reliable method for measuring the concentration of free fluoride ions in honey is still missing from the literature, notwithstanding the generally recognized importance of the analyte and the matrix. To fill this gap, this study proposes and validates a straightforward ion-specific electrode potentiometric method for this task. The method offers very low detection and quantification limits (6.7μgkg−1 and 25μgkg−1, respectively), good linearity (R2>0.994), good sensitivity (typically 55±3mV for an order of magnitude of concentration) in an unusually low concentration interval (between 0.020 and 1mgL−1), and acceptable precision and bias. The method was applied to 30 unifloral (thistle, eucalyptus and strawberry tree) honey samples from Sardinia, Italy. The amount of free fluoride ions found in these honeys appears to be lower than the range usually found in the literature; indeed, early results suggest a possible dependence of the analyte concentration on the honey’s botanical origin.
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