Contributors:Vera B. Bender, Hendrik Lantzsch, Till J.J. Hanebuth, Sebastian Krastel
List of the GALIOMAR and GALIOMAR II sediment vibrocores of this study
... Interpretations of the Boomer Profiles A to D and respective columns of sedimentcores. Boxes display magnifications marked in Fig. 2. Core lithology, grain size and radiocarbon ages are shown in core columns above. All seismic units of the Boomer profiles are found in the sedimentcores. U1 and U2 are mainly composed of fine sands and U3 is characterised by mud to muddy fine sands. Reflectors R1 and R2 extend across the shelf as gravel layers. Boomer interpretation, core lithology and radiocarbon measurements enable the correlation between single cores. Position of Profiles A–D is shown in Fig. 1.
... Boomer profiles of the respective seismic Profiles A to D shown in Fig. 1 and interpreted shelf architecture. B: basement; EU: erosional unconformity; U1, U2, U3: main seismic units; R1, R2: seismic reflectors separating the units. Black arrows indicate sedimentcore positions. Boxes in the interpretation display magnifications shown in Fig. 3. Depth on y-axis is given in metres below modern sea level (mbsl).
... LateQuaternary... Core images representing the variety of sediments deposited on the NW Iberian shelf. (A) Homogenous fine sand (exemplarily shown by Core 11027-2; 432–444 cm; U2; interpreted as regressive facies of U1 or transgressive deposits of U2); (B) glauconite-rich fine sand (11008-2; 230–242 cm; U1; outer shelf palimpsest facies); (C) overconsolidated clay (11015-2; 449–461 cm; U1; palaeosol facies); (D) shell fragment gravel (11028-2; 435–447 cm; R1; lag deposit); (E) siliceous gravel (11038-2; 279–291 cm; R2; shoreface deposit); and (F) mud (11029-2; 181–193 cm; U3; mud-belt facies). Core tops are directed to the left, core bottoms to the right.
... Scheme of the Late Pleistocene–Holocene shelf evolution related to the superordinated sea-level history along Profile C. The development of seismic reflector R1 during the last sea-level lowstand and early sea-level rise is followed by the deposition of U2 sediments and the formation of reflector R2. (U3) represents the main depocentre during the modern sea-level highstand.
Contributors:Patricia M Anderson, Feng Sheng Hu, Linda B Brubaker
Magnetic susceptibility of sedimentcores from: (a) Idavain Lake; (b) Snipe Lake.
... Magnetic susceptibility (thin line) and Betula pollen percentages (thick line) at Idavain Lake, 600–900cm core depth.
... Quaternary Research Center, University of Washington Box 351360, Seattle WA 98195, USA
Contributors:M.F Bachmann, A Akhmetzhanov, M.A Prins, S.R Troelstra, A Kuijpers, K Linthout, S Bouryak, S Lassen, S Rasmussen, J.B Jensen
Sonograph from the upper rise illustrating widespread sediment waves with wavelengths of up to about 100 m. Asymmetry, seen in some of the sediment waves, indicates contour-parallel bottom currents (shown by arrow) presumably associated with southerly DSOW flow. For location, see Fig. 1a.
... Sonograph section showing large, EGC-parallel iceberg plow marks on the outer shelf (water depth 600 m), valleys and ridges indicative of downslope sediment transport at the shelf edge and upper slope, and debris flow lobes and smaller fans at the base of the slope. Longitudinal bedforms, i.e. sand ribbons and streamers of ‘infinite’ length, indicate the high-velocity current core of south flowing LSW between 800 and 1500 m water depth. Note that (glacial) debris flow structures locally are cut off by the superimposed, current-induced bedforms. For location, see Fig. 1a.
... Lithological log of core DS97-7P with whole-core MS, calcium carbonate content, relative abundance of the planktonic foraminiferal species Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sinistral and dextral), and stable oxygen isotope stratigraphy (planktonic foraminifera N. pachyderma sinistral). Core intervals characterized by a very low (sediment) benthic foraminiferal fauna are indicated by gray shading. Results of 14C measurements are also shown. The core location, where water depth is 1843 m, is indicated in Fig. 1a. For the lithological signatures refer to Fig. 9.
... Airgun record from line a-1 (for location, see Fig. 1a) showing a cross-section of the two, up to 150-m-deep turbidite channels (see arrows) in the northern part of the study area (see also Fig. 7). The record clearly illustrates the asymmetric sedimentation pattern associated with (current-controlled) turbidite deposition along the channel. The well-developed levee seen on the southwest bank of both channels indicates maximum sedimentation rates downstream with respect to the DSOW flow direction. PL-Q refers to the upper, well-stratified Pliocene–Quaternary sedimentary sequence.
... sedimentation... Lithological log of core DS97-4P with grain size (>63 μm) distribution, whole-core MS, XRF relative Ca intensity and calcium carbonate content (percentage on lower scale, open dots), and sediment Fe/K ratio. Results of 14C measurements are also shown. Note that the grain size data refer to the carbonate-free fraction, implying that biogenic calcareous (foraminiferal) sand at the top of the core is not represented. The core location, where water depth is 620 m, is indicated in Fig. 1a.
Average sediment texture, mean grain size, water content, shear strength and abundance of clay mineral compositions analyzed in the coresediments
... Photographs of coresediments of deep-drilled core BH2. PS, paleosol; WG, weathered granite gneiss.
... Schematic evolutionary sequence for the lateQuaternary tidal deposits in the eastern margin of the Yellow Sea (western margin of Korea). MHWL: mean high water level.
... Up-core changes of mean grain size, silt/clay ratio and grain size frequency from Unit I sediments of BH1.
... lateQuaternary stratigraphy... Representative stratigraphic framework for the lateQuaternary tidal-flat deposits in Haenam Bay.
Contributors:W Lowrie, A.M Hirt, A.F Lotter, L Lanci, G Lemcke, M Sturm
Interpolated age for the Bachalpsee core. The question mark indicates the uncertainty in age at the bottom of the core.
... Mean hysteresis parameters high field (paramagnetic) susceptibility for different core segments. The dispersion parameter is the mean absolute deviation
... Mean sediment magnetic parameters of bedrock samples from the Bachalpsee catchment. The dispersion parameter is the mean absolute deviation
... glaciolacustrine sedimentation... (a) Loss on ignition data (LOI) at 550°C as a function of depth provide an estimate of the organic carbon contents in the sediments and is used as a climatic proxy. It agrees with the pollen results which indicate an increase in organic carbon content at about 780 cm due to a transition to warmer climate. (b) The sample scores of the first axis of the detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) carried out on the pollen data give an indication of the magnitude of vegetation change. The crosses represent the actual measurements and the line is obtained by passing the data two times throught a 5-point Gaussian smoothing filter, in this and subsequent figures.
... (a) IRM acquisition curves for two sets of typical samples taken in the cold and warm sections of the core. The different coercivity spectra indicate differences in magnetic mineralogy and discriminate between warm and cold stages of the core. (b) Thermal demagnetization of a two-component IRM acquired along orthogonal directions in samples from the warm section of the core.
Contributors:Nina Kirchner, Matthew O’Regan, Martin Jakobsson
Geotechnical properties of shallow sediments from ODP Hole 910A. Rebound corrected void-ratio data from the upper 25 mbsf are compared to the predicted normally consolidated in-situ profile from compression curves (shaded region). Dashed line is the predicted in-situ void ratio under an applied overburden of 460 kPa. B. Shear-strength data from the same interval (circles = shear vane, squares = penetrometer) with the expected range of normally consolidated values assuming S = 0.2 and 0.4 (shaded region), as well as the predicted values assuming sediments were completely consolidated under a vertical overburden of 460 kPa. C. Age model for Hole 910A showing MIS boundaries, derived by linear interpolation between the age-tie points of Knies et al. (2007). Hiatus in 910A age model (790–50 ka) occurs at 19.5 mbsf. Areas bounded by wavy lines indicate region within which the geotechnical properties suggest the middle and lateQuaternary (MIS6) ice-grounding horizons lie.
... Chirp subbottom profile 96038 showing projected position and relative penetration of core 96/21-1pc. Acoustically transparent interval is interpreted as reworked sediments deposited beneath relatively fast moving grounded ice.
... Detail of the central Lomonosov Ridge showing locations of cores discussed in this manuscript. Red line on inset indicates location of the chirp profile shown in Fig. 11. Shaded areas represent the extent of erosion inferred from high-resolution subbottom data (Jakobsson et al., 2008b; Kristoffersen et al., 2004) and the hatched region the extent of the redeposited lense of sediments. Thick hatching in the vicinity of cores 96/09-1pc and 96/10-1pc marks the area where seismic data indicates more extensive erosion of the ridge crest (shown schematically in Fig. 10 after Kristoffersen et al., 2004). (For interpretation of the references to colour in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article).
... Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden... Interpretation of MCS profile across the Lomonosov Ridge in the vicinity of core 96/09-1pc illustrating over 100 m of glacial erosion (adapted from Kristoffersen et al., 2004).
... Derivation of regional compaction curves from laboratory and field data illustrating the virgin compaction curves used to predict in-situ void ratio under different loading conditions. A. Results from consolidation tests performed on 11 samples from Neogene and Quaternarysediments on the Lomonosov Ridge recovered during the Arctic Coring Expedition (ACEX) (O’Regan et al., 2010), Arctic Ocean 1996/ARK-XII/1 (Jakobsson et al., 2001) and Arctic Ocean 1991/ARK-VIII/3 (Fütterer, 1992). In all but two tests (96/09-1pc a, b) a clear break between elastic (recompression) and plastic (virgin compression) curves marks the preconsolidation pressure, which in each case is close to the in-situ effective stress, indicating that the sediments are normally consolidated. B. Results from a single sample recovered during ODP Leg 151 from Hole 910D on the Yermak Plateau. The best-fit regression for the virgin compression curve is shown, along with the maximum and minimum values arising from uncertainties in the initial void ratio of the sample. C. Comparison between the virgin compression curve from the sample at Site 910, and the best-fit to rebound corrected void-ratio data from ODP Sites 911 (yellow circles and line) and 912 (blue circles and line). Rebound corrections were performed using a value of 0.065 for Cr. (For interpretation of the references to colour in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article).
Dissolution-corrected opal rain rates (corrected for sediment redistribution and dissolution, circles) and opal rain rates (squares) as a function of age for the five cores.
... Opal rain rates (corrected for sediment redistribution but not opal dissolution) as a function of age for the five cores.
... (a) SSTs calculated using foraminiferal transfer functions for the last 60 kyr for cores MD 94102, MD 88770 and MD 88769 (Salvignac, 1998; Labeyrie et al., 1996; Lemoine, 1998). (b) Summer SSTs reconstructed for the LGM for sedimentcores MD 88770 and MD 84552.
... Time slices of the (a) opal accumulation rates (not corrected for sediment redistribution and dissolution), and (b) opal rain rates from 43°S to 55°S. The triangle on the X-axis marks the approximate position of the APF for each period. MD 88773 data are from François et al. (1997).
... Location of the gravity cores
Contributors:A. Cascella, P. Petrosino, M. Vallefuoco, N. Pelosi, L. Capotondi, C. Lubritto, S. Tamburrino, F. Lirer, M. Sprovieri, L. Ferraro, D.D. Insinga
Table of the identified tephra layers. Layers are labelled and the relative position (cmcd) in the composite core is indicated. The label (V) Corresponds to the volcaniclastic layer recorded in core C836.
... Correlation of the three studied cores with the constructed composite core. All the recognised tephra layers are labelled from tS1 to tS4-α; volcaniclastic layer is labelled V. Magnetic susceptibility values for cores C90 and C836 are from Iorio et al. (2004), for core C90-1m is from Vallefuoco et al. (2012). Core lithology of cores C90 and C836 are from Iorio et al. (2004) modified while C90-1m, is from Vallefuoco et al. (2012).
... Integrated eco-biostratigraphic scheme plotted vs time. The ages for the identified climatic events top Younger Dryas (at 11.50 ka BP), top TC6 (at 11.90 ka BP) and Sapropel S1 (base at 10.800 ± 0.400 ka BP and top at 6.100 ± 0.500 ka BP) are from Björck et al. (1998), Cacho et al. (2001) and De Lange et al. (2008), respectively, while age for the top of Bölling-Allerod (13.421 ± 0.175 ka BP) is from this work. The ages for the Mesolithic, Neolithic, Eneolithic, Early Bronze age, Middle Bronze age, Late Bronze age, Early Iron age, Greek colonian-Etrurian and Roman archeological periods are from Roberts et al. (2011). The ages for the Medieval Optimum and the Little Ice Age (LIA) are from Perry and Hsu (2000). The arrows represent the position of the identified tephra layers with the ages according to this work and according to literature data.
... Location map of the study area. a) The black rectangle is the study area, while the black circle (core GNS84-C106), the black triangle (core BS7939) and the black star (ODP-Site 963) represent the study cores of Di Donato et al. (2008), Sbaffi et al. (2004) and of Sprovieri et al. (2003), respectively, and used for correlation; b) detailed location map of the studied cores in the Salerno Gulf (C90-1m; C90, C836).
... 14C-AMS radiocarbon data available for the composite core.
Contributors:Baoping Song, Zhanghua Wang, Zhongyuan Chen, Yongli Cai
Palaeomagnetic data of the core Cj4. Indicated 14C dates are based from Chen and Wang (1994).
... Pollen-spore percentage diagram and four zones (a–d) of the core Cj4. Zone c, the warmest temperature period starting at ca. 7000 years B.P., equivalent to the Atlantic period.
... lateQuaternary stratigraphy... Study area of the sub-aqueous Yangtze Delta, showing the location of sedimentcores, vibrocores, surficial samples and seismic track line.
... Sediment distribution of the sub-aqueous Yangtze Delta. Four sediment belts (A–D) are defined, see text for further information.
... sediment distribution... Generalized lithostratigraphic log of the lateQuaternary sub-aqueous Yangtze Delta. N, number; S, species; R, rare (1–10); C, common (11–50); A, abundant (>50); Cl, clay; Si, silt; Fs, fine sand.