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Vortex structures and corresponding vortex shedding frequency for different inlet flows. (a) and (b): uniform; (c) and (d): St0/St=0.5 and Re′=25; (e) and (f): St0/St=0.75 and Re′=50; (g) and (h): St0/St=1.25 and Re′=100. ... Oscillating flow... Correlation between the time-average lift coefficient ratio 〈Cl〉/〈Cl0〉 and the frequency ratio of the oscillating inlet flow St0/St. ... Correlation between the maximum lift coefficient ratio ClMax/〈Cl0〉 and the oscillating Reynolds number Re′. ... Correlations between (a) the gradient of the maximum lift coefficient calculated by Eq. (22) and the frequency of the inlet oscillating flow St0/St; (b) the gradient of the maximum lift coefficient calculated by Eq. (25) and the oscillating Reynolds number Re′. ... Correlations between the average drag coefficient ratio 〈Cd〉/〈Cd0〉−1 and (a) the frequency ratio St0/St; (b) the oscillating Reynolds number Re′.
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High frequency oscillations
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Shape oscillations... PSDs of a2 the different fluids at (a) Re=639 and (b) Re=418. In (a), the green solid line denotes f=107Hz, the natural frequency of n=2 mode oscillation for water droplet and the green dashed line denotes f=90Hz, the natural frequency of n=2 mode oscillation for glycerol droplet. (For interpretation of the references to color in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.) ... Sequence of consecutive snapshots (5ms apart) of the oscillating droplets. The scale bar in the first image represents 1mm. ... Power spectral density of the instantaneous velocity measured at the wake of the oscillating droplets for water and glycerol at two different Reynolds numbers.
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Various biological processes regulated by cytosolic Ca2+ oscillations. ... Calcium oscillations... Cartoon illustrating the main mechanisms involved in the generation of cytosolic Ca2+ oscillations. Cytosolic Ca2+ oscillations are generated through the concerted action of cellular mechanisms that increase (red) and decrease (blue) the concentration of Ca2+ in the cytoplasm. Oscillatory signals are initiated by stimuli that trigger entry of external Ca2+ through receptor (R) or voltage (ΔV) gated Ca2+ channels in the plasma membrane or by activation of receptors (R) that stimulate PLC and InsP3-mediated Ca2+-release from the ER/SR. When the cytosolic level of Ca2+ increases, Ca2+ itself stimulates InsP3Rs and/or RyRs to release further Ca2+ into the cytoplasm. During this phase, Ca2+ buffers bind Ca2+ which contributes to the decrease in the cytosolic concentration of free Ca2+. When the Ca2+ concentration reaches high levels, the plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA) and Na+/Ca2+-exchanger (NCX) extrude Ca2+ to the outside, whereas the ER/SR Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) pumps Ca2+ back into the ER/SR.
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Frequency adjustment... Numerical simulation of the vibration absorption using a shape memory alloy oscillator. From left to right, top to bottom, (a) displacement of the primary mass block, (b) displacement of the attached mass block, (c) frequency response of the absorber, (d) force–deformation relation of the absorber. ... Numerical simulation of the vibration absorption using a shape memory alloy oscillator. From left to right, top to bottom, (a) displacement of the primary mass; (b) displacement of the attached mass; (c) frequency response of the absorber. ... Numerical simulation of the adaptivity of SMA vibration absorber. From left to right, top to bottom, (a) displacement of the primary mass, θ=396K. (b) Frequency response of the absorber, θ=396K. (c) Displacement of the primary mass, θ=282K. (d) Frequency response of the absorber, θ=282K. ... Sketch of dynamic vibration absorbers: left – a SMA oscillator in building vibration suppression; centre – a linear mass vibration absorber; right – a SMA based vibration absorber.
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Jump-up frequencies of the Duffing oscillator as a function of the non-dimensional parameter α, which governs the degree of nonlinearity. A negative value of α denotes a softening system and a positive value of α denotes a hardening system; solid line—Eq. (12); ○, numerical integration ζ=0.02; ×, numerical integration ζ=0.05; (a) and (b) denote the frequencies at which a jump will occur for the threshold value of |α| for ζ=0.02 and 0.05, respectively. ... Normalised jump-up and jump-down frequencies and the normalised response amplitudes at these frequencies calculated using the harmonic balance method ... Jump-down frequencies of the Duffing oscillator as a function of the ratio of non-dimensional parameters α and ζ2, which governs the degree of nonlinearity and damping, respectively. A negative value of α/ζ2 denotes a softening system and a positive value of α/ζ2 denotes a hardening system; solid line—Eq. (9) ○, numerical integration ζ=0.02; ×, numerical integration ζ=0.05; (a) and (b) denote the frequencies at which a jump will occur for the threshold value of |α| for ζ=0.02 and 0.05, respectively. ... Frequency response curves for the Duffing oscillator. The dashed lines denote unstable solutions. The crosses denote the responses at the jump-up frequencies and the circles denote the maximum values of the response, which occur approximately at the jump-down frequencies. Expressions for the jump-up and jump-down frequencies, and the response amplitudes at these frequencies are given in Table 1. For all the simulations ζ=0.02; for the softening systems α=0.9αm and 1.1αm where αm=-4/3ζ2, and for the hardening system α=−5αm. Note that there is no jump-down frequency, when α=1.1αm. ... Non-dimensional maximum amplitude of the Duffing oscillator, which occurs approximately at the jump-down frequency as a function of the non-dimensional parameter α, which governs the degree of nonlinearity. A negative value of α denotes a softening system and a positive value of α denotes a hardening system; solid line—Eq. (8) with ζ=0.02; dashed line---Eq. (8) with ζ=0.05; ○, numerical integration ζ=0.02; ×, numerical integration ζ=0.05; (a) and (b) denote the threshold value of |α| for ζ=0.02 and 0.05, respectively.
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The proposed oscillator circuits reported in [10]. ... Variation of the frequency of oscillation of the circuit of Fig. 1(b) with R1 (R2=10kΩ, R3=1kΩ, C1=C2=1nFandR0=10kΩ). ... Sinusoidal oscillators... Variation of the frequency of oscillation of the circuit of Fig. 1(a) with R0 (R2=10kΩ, R3=1kΩ, C1=C2=1nFandR1=10kΩ). ... Variation of the frequency of oscillation of the circuit of Fig. 1(a) with R1 (R2=10kΩ, R3=1kΩ, C1=C2=1nFandR0=10kΩ).
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Parametric oscillator... Diagram of the optical parametric oscillator modeled in this paper. The reflectivity of mirrors can be changed to meet demands of users.
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Effects of the dimensionless frequency of the lid velocity on stream function at central point of cavity (X=0.5 and Y=−0.1443) for Re=100, Gr=5×105. ... Periodic movement of minimum local Nusselt number point on the oscillating lid, at W=0.863, Re=100, and Gr=5×105. ... Frequency spectrum of the periodic flow field for various dimensionless frequencies of lid velocity at Re=100 and Gr=5×105. (a) Constant–velocity lid, (b)W=0.2 and (c) W=0.5. ... Periodic flow and temperature fields in one oscillating lid period, at Re=100 and Gr=5×105. (a) Constant–velocity lid, (b) W=0.1 (τpw=62.83) and (c) W=0.863 (τpw=7.28). ... Lid oscillation... Maximum and minimum stream functions and Nusselt numbers reached in a period of flow oscillation as functions of the dimensionless frequency of lid velocity, at Re=100 and Gr=5×105.
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The relation between seizure frequency per month and number of channels with (A) ripples (>1/min), (B) fast ripples (>1/min), and (C) more than 20 fast ripples per minute. There were no patients with 0 channels with ripples (>1/min; A), but there were patients with 0 channels with fast ripples (>1 or >20/min; B and C). The seizure frequency was shown on a logarithmic scale, because of the distribution. As indicated in the text, there was no correlation between seizure frequency per month and the number of channels with more than 1 ripple or fast ripple per minute, but there was a positive correlation between seizure frequency and more than 20 fast ripples per minute. ... This table shows the correlation coefficients Rho for different alternative comparisons: seizure frequency (seizures/month) compared to the number and percentage of channels with ripples, fast ripples, spikes and ripples and fast ripples without spikes (first two lines), seizure frequency compared to number of channels with higher rates of ripples and fast ripples (>5, >10 and >20, lines 3–5) and number of seizure-days/month compared to channels with ripples and fast ripples. All comparisons were done for all patients, all patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and all patients with unilateral mesiotemporal seizure onset.
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