Contributors:S. Wade Taylor, Christina Psaros, David W. Pantalone, Jake Tinsley, Steven A. Elsesser, Kenneth H. Mayer, Steven A. Safren
One dramatic advance in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention efforts has been the prescription of medications typically used for HIV treatment as prophylaxis against acquiring HIV. As a preventative agent, this practice is referred to as “preexposure prophylaxis” (PrEP). The U.S. Federal Drug Administration approved daily PrEP for adults at risk for HIV who do not consistently use condoms during sex with HIV-infected or unknown-status partners. In this paper, we describe a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) PrEP adherence intervention developed for use in high-risk sexual-minority men in the United States, adapted from “Life-Steps,” an evidence-based CBT intervention to promote adherence to HIV treatment. Modules include creating a PrEP dosing schedule, adhering to daily PrEP, problem solving barriers to adherence, and sexual risk-reduction techniques. Supplemented with practical video vignettes, this novel intervention may help to enhance the clinical practice of health care providers in outpatient settings to increase PrEP adherence in sexual-minority men.
Contributors:S. Martínez-Fernández, X. Franch, J. Bisbal
Nowadays, lots of service providers offer predictive services that show in advance a condition or occurrence about the future. As a consequence, it becomes necessary for service customers to select the predictive service that best satisfies their needs. The QuPreSS reference model provides a standard solution for the selection of predictive services based on the quality of their predictions. QuPreSS has been designed to be applicable in any predictive domain (e.g., weather forecasting, economics, and medicine). This paper presents Mercury, a tool based on the QuPreSS reference model and customized to the weather forecast domain. Mercury measures weather predictive services' quality, and automates the context-dependent selection of the most accurate predictive service to satisfy a customer query. To do so, candidate predictive services are monitored so that their predictions can be eventually compared to real observations obtained from a trusted source. Mercury is a proof-of-concept of QuPreSS that aims to show that the selection of predictive services can be driven by the quality of their predictions. Throughout the paper, we show how Mercury was built from the QuPreSS reference model and how it can be installed and used.
Contributors:Kyle L. Gobrogge, Xixi Jia, Yan Liu, Zuoxin Wang
The neuropeptides vasopressin and corticotropin-releasing hormone facilitate, while serotonin inhibits, aggression. How the brain is wired to coordinate interactions between these functionally opposed neurotransmitters to control behavioral states is poorly understood.
Contributors:James L. Peugh, Daniel Strotman, Meghan McGrady, Joseph Rausch, Susmita Kashikar-Zuck
Randomized control trials (RCTs) have long been the gold standard for allowing causal inferences to be made regarding the efficacy of a treatment under investigation, but traditional RCT data analysis perspectives do not take into account a common reality: imperfect participant compliance to treatment. Recent advances in both maximum likelihood parameter estimation and mixture modeling methodology have enabled treatment effects to be estimated, in the presence of less than ideal levels of participant compliance, via a Complier Average Causal Effect (CACE) structural equation mixture model. CACE is described in contrast to “intent to treat” (ITT), “per protocol”, and “as treated” RCT data analysis perspectives. CACE model assumptions, specification, estimation, and interpretation will all be demonstrated with simulated data generated from a randomized controlled trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy for Juvenile Fibromyalgia. CACE analysis model figures, linear model equations, and Mplus estimation syntax examples are all provided.
This paper focuses on a perishable product supply chain with a vendor and multiple retailers. These retailers, densely spread in a distribution zone, are sensitive to price, delivery time and product quality. With the aim of optimizing the vendor’s expected long-run average profit during a shipment consolidation cycle, an analytical model is proposed for this problem. According to the upper bound expressions of the expected long-run average profit, the approximate optimal time policy and freshness-keeping cost are given based on a certain range of time parameter. Our theoretical findings are verified through a numerical case. Some useful managerial insights are obtained by analyzing the sensitivity of this model from six perspectives, which are market scenarios, types of perishable products, quality requirements of all retailers, cost parameters, line-haul time and vehicle capacity.
Contributors:Claudia Trenkwalder, Monica Canelo, Michael Lang, Hanna Schroeder, Daniela Kelling, Reinhard Berkels, Erwin Schollmayer, Tanja Heidbrede, Heike Benes
The aim of this study is to assess the effect of switching to rotigotine transdermal patch on severity of restless legs syndrome (RLS) in patients who experienced acute augmentation with previous oral dopaminergics.
The effects of cannabinoids in brain areas expressing cannabinoid receptors, such as hypothalamic nuclei, are not yet well known. Several studies have demonstrated the role of hypothalamic nuclei in the organisation of behavioural responses induced through innate fear and panic attacks. Panic-prone states are experimentally induced in laboratory animals through a reduction in the GABAergic activity. The aim of the present study was to examine panic-like elaborated defensive behaviour evoked through GABAA receptor blockade with bicuculline (BIC) in the dorsomedial division of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMHdm). We also aimed to characterise the involvement of endocannabinoids and the CB1 cannabinoid receptor in the modulation of elaborated defence behavioural responses organised through the VMHdm. The guide-cannula was stereotaxicaly implanted in VMHdm and the animals were treated with anandamide (AEA) at different doses, and the effective dose was used after the pre-treatment with the CB1 receptor antagonist AM251, followed by GABAA receptor blockade in VMHdm. The results showed that the intra-hypothalamic administration of AEA at an intermediate dose (5 pmol) attenuated defence responses induced through the intra-VMHdm microinjection of bicuculline (40 ng). This effect, however, was prevented through the pre-treatment of the VMHdm with the CB1 receptor antagonist AM251. Moreover, AM251 potentiates de non-oriented escape induced by bicuculline, effect blocked by pre-treatment with the TRPV1 channel antagonist 6-I-CPS. These results indicate that AEA modulates the pro-aversive effects of intra-VMHdm-bicuculline treatment, recruiting CB1 cannabinoid receptors and the TRPV1 channel is involved in the AM251-related potentiation of bicuculline effects on non-oriented escape behaviour.
Contributors:T. Felgentreff, M. Perscheid, R. Hirschfeld
Distributed applications are hard to debug because timing-dependent network communication is a source of non-deterministic behavior. Current approaches to debug non-deterministic failures include post-mortem debugging as well as record and replay. However, the first impairs system performance to gather data, whereas the latter requires developers to understand the timing-dependent communication at a lower level of abstraction than they develop at. Furthermore, both approaches require intrusive core library modifications to gather data from live systems.
This study extends a neoclassical growth model to include the accumulation of physical capital and energy consumption within a panel of fifty states (plus the District of Columbia) in the U.S. The theoretical model allows us to examine the implications for convergence in economic growth and energy intensity. From the theoretical model, we formulate an empirical approach using a dynamic panel model that is estimated using a general method of moments framework to test the conditional rates of convergence. The empirical results indicate convergence in energy intensity, and our estimates accurately predict both the growth in and convergence of energy intensity across our entire sample. Consistent with other findings in the literature, our results imply that energy use, over the past four decades, plays a small and positive role in state-level, per capita economic growth and convergence. Based on these results, we discuss policy implications for state-level income growth and energy consumption.
Contributors:Luca Talarico, Johan Springael, Kenneth Sörensen, Fabio Talarico
In this paper, we propose a new metaheuristic to solve the Risk constrained Cash-in-Transit Vehicle Routing Problem (Rctvrp). The Rctvrp is a variant of the well-known capacitated vehicle routing problem and models the problem of routing vehicles in the cash-in-transit sector. In the Rctvrp, the risk associated with a robbery represents a critical aspect that is treated as a limiting factor subject to a maximum risk threshold.