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We developed a semi-analytical fibre bundle model to simulate the longitudinal tensile failure of large composite bundles of continuous fibres. The model uses shear-lag to calculate the stress recovery along broken fibres, and an efficient field superposition method to calculate the stress concentration on the intact fibres, which has been validated against analytical and FE results from the literature. The baseline version of the model uses static equilibrium stress states, and considers fibre failure driven by strength of materials (stress overload) as the only damage theory which can drive bundle failure. Like other models in the literature, the baseline model fails to capture the correct size effect (decreasing composite strength with bundle size) shown by experimental results. Two model variants have been developed which include dynamics stress concentrations (model DE) and a fracture mechanics (model FM) failure criterion respectively. To the knowledge of the authors, it is the first attempt in the literature to investigate these two effects in a fibre bundle model by direct simulation of large composite bundles.
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The experiment consisted of four treatments, each with three replicates.Sort them in order. Each table includes soil basic physical and chemical properties, soil PLFA data, soil enzyme activity data and soil 13CNMR data. Mean and standard deviation can be calculated to show the difference between different treatments. The other two tables are the data used for PLSPM analysis and the data used in R analysis.
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Integrated thermodynamic-volume database for the Ni-Al γ/γ′ binary phases
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Research data (Complete Table 3) - Results: Mean annual CCF values identified in southern Spain.
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This is raw data of appropriate depth for harvesting lincluding yield, shoot and root biomass, root system traits in different diameter. The field experiments were conducted in Kaiyuan City (103o15’E, 23o42’ N, 1117m A) of Yunnan Province, in the south-west of China. The field soil soil pH was 7.5 (tested by potentiometry); The organic matter was tested by the potassium dichromate method; Soil nutrients were tested by flme atomic absorption spectrophotometry; and soil mechanical composition was tested by sedimentation method. The experiment was rainfed, and the groundwater level is approximately 2 m below the ground surface. The climate in this region is high temperature during summer, with long winter and early spring severe drought periods. The highest values of precipitation and temperature occur in June and July. The experiment was conducted from 2016 to 2018 on sugarcane cultivar YZ081609 (Zhao et al., 2019). The plant crop was planted on 22 April 2016 with a conventional planting density of 120,000 buds ha-1 (double buds cane setts). The planting depth (cane setts bed to soil surface) was approximately 10 cm, with about 10 ~ 15 cm of earth up before grand growth. So, after plant crop was harvested, there was a soil layer of 20 ~ 25 cm upper the original cane setts. Fertilizer N P K (20-12-18) was applied during the early elongation period of sugarcane at the rate of 1200 kg ha -1 on March 10, 2017 and 2018. Cultivation and crop management procedures were otherwise consistent with conventional cropping practices. Based on the density of underground buds on ratoon stool and their germination potential, we divided the underground buds into 3 types.Type 1 is the terminal bud in top soil, they were lowest in amount and germinate the fastest, the roots distributed mainly in upper soil; type 2 distributed at the depth of 5 ~ 10 cm, most of them are active bud that germinate fast, and their roots distributed deeper; type 3 are mostly dormant bud distributed bellow 10 cm with the poorest germination. Accordingly, the harvesting depths (treatment) were -0 cm, -5 cm and -10 cm for T1, T2 and T3. For each harvesting, sugarcane plants were cut down by a sharp hoe manually. In order to maintain the accuracy of harvesting depth, a half side of the soil surrounding the stool were removed by the relative depth of each treatment before conducting the harvest. Plant crop was harvested on 9 March 2017, first ratoon crop was harvested on 4 March 2018 when the sucrose content reached to top (matured). The plot size was 30 m2 (5 rows wide × 6 m long). Three treatments were randomized in each of the 3 replications. The data of each plant came from the data of the cluster dividing the millable number of the cluster.
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Data from underwater video cameras and underwater visual census to obtain real fish densities considering the habitat characteristics in the individual detectability. In addition, simulation for demonstrating (1) how to calibrate the cameras for accounting for the effects of an "external" continuous variable on detectability and (2) how to apply such a cameras calibration for estimate fish density at new sites.
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Saltwater crocodiles Crocodylus porosus are regarded as critically endangered in Myanmar because they are limited to the Meinmahlakyun Wildlife Sanctuary (MKWS) in the Ayeyarwady delta region. Little contemporary data exists on their distribution and population size which hinders effective conservation and management. We conducted standardized spotlight surveys and camera trap surveys along the rivers inside the MKWS, and two nearby reserved forests. By addressing biases in detectability, we used maximum-likelihood and Bayesian approaches (1) to find out occupancy and population parameters of saltwater crocodiles, and (2) to assay abiotic and anthropogenic factors affecting it. We used single-season occupancy models, Hierarchical N-mixture models, a Spatial Count model, and the relative abundance index to estimate population sizes. We applied two-phase adaptive sampling which is designed to focus on occupancy surveys over a wide area of interest in the first season (phase I during February to May) and abundance surveys sticking to the areas of high predicted occupancy in the second season (phase II during October to February). The dataset includes the counts of adult, sub-adult, juvenile and Eye shine only (EO) crocodiles detected during the repeated spotlight surveys, detection history from camera traps and environmental variables collected during surveys. Population size estimates inside the MKWS were 75, 58 and 68 respectively from spotlight index, N-mixture, and SC models. Saltwater crocodiles were more likely to occupy waterways inside MKWS than the reserved forests, and preferred narrow waterways with low salinity, and no human settlements. Our result based on spotlight relative abundance index indicates a stable population size of c.106 when compared with the estimate of Thorbarnarson et al. (2000), who reported that less than 100 individuals were present in MKWS, and therefore, future surveys are recommended to monitor this trend.
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RRDE results from KOH activated char
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This file contains SPSS outputs involving descriptive analysis, tests of assumptions, and independent t-test analysis.
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The dataset contains raw data about air temperature, velocity and turbulent quantities of axisymmetric and anisothermal jets developing near the ceiling of a thermally controlled room called MINIBAT. These data are measured over five vertical sampling plans, one median plan and four transversal plans, for three cases of air jet temperature: an isothermal case (Re=13360), a hot case (Re=21600) and a cold case (Re=11760). Read the associated article for more detailed information.
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