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Full title: Complex patterns of genome accessibility discriminate sites of PcG repression, H4K16 acetylation and replication initiation Histone modifications have been proposed to regulate gene expression in part by modulating DNA accessibility and higher-order chromatin structure. However, there is limited direct evidence to support structural differences between euchromatic and heterochromatic fibers in the nucleus. To ask how histone modifications relate to chromatin compaction, we measured DNA accessibility throughout the genome by combining M.SssI methylase footprinting with methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP-footprint). In the Drosophila genome, we find that accessibility to DNA methylase is variable in a manner that relates to the differential distribution of active and repressive histone modifications. Active promoters are highly permissive to M.SssI activity, yet inactive chromosomal domains decorated with H3 lysine 27 trimethylation are least accessible providing in vivo evidence for Polycomb-mediated chromatin compaction. Conversely, DNA accessibility is increased at active chromosomal regions marked with H4 lysine 16 acetylation and at the dosage-compensated male X chromosome suggesting that Drosophila transcriptional dosage compensation is facilitated by more permissive chromatin structure. Interestingly early replicating chromosomal regions and sites of replication initiation show also higher accessibility linking temporal and spatial control of genome duplication to the structural organization of chromatin. In conclusion, using a novel protocol we generated a comprehensive view of DNA accessibility and uncover different levels of chromatin organization, which are delineated by distinct patterns of posttranslational histone modifications and replication. Keywords: cell type comparison, ChIP-chip, MeDIP-footprint, RNA-seq, ChIP-seq MeDIP-footprint and ChIP-chip: ChIP-chip was performed for H3K4me3, H3K36me2, H3K36me3, H3K27me3, and H3K9me2 in Kc cells. We measured DNA accessibility throughout the genome by combining M.SssI methylase footprinting with methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP-footprint) in Kc and S2 cells. RNA-seq: cDNA from RNA from Drosophila Kc cells was sequenced using Illumina deep sequencing. Reads were mapped and the abundance of all transcripts was determined. ChIP-seq: PSC ChIP from Drosophila Kc cells was sequenced using Illumina deep sequencing in three lanes. Reads were mapped and the binding profile of PSC was determined.
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Chromatin insulators are functionally conserved DNA-protein complexes that are situated throughout the genome and organize independent transcriptional domains.  Previous work implicated RNA as an important cofactor in chromatin insulator activity, although the mechanisms by which RNA affects insulator activity are not yet understood.  Here we identify the exosome, the highly conserved major cellular 3’ to 5’ RNA degradation machinery, as a physical interactor of CP190-dependent chromatin insulator complexes in Drosophila.  High resolution genome-wide profiling of exosome by ChIP-seq in two different embryonic cell lines reveals extensive and specific overlap with the CP190, BEAF-32, and CTCF insulator proteins.  Colocalization occurs mainly at promoters but also well-characterized boundary elements, such as scs, scs’, Mcp, and Fab-8.  Surprisingly, exosome associates primarily with promoters but not gene bodies, arguing against simple cotranscriptional recruitment to RNA substrates.  We find that exosome is recruited to chromatin in a transcription dependent manner, preferentially to highly transcribed genes.  Similar to insulator proteins, exosome is also significantly enriched at divergently transcribed promoters.  Directed ChIP of exosome in cell lines depleted of insulator proteins shows that CTCF is specifically required for exosome association at Mcp and Fab-8 but not other sites, suggesting that alternate mechanisms must also contribute to exosome chromatin recruitment.  Taken together, our results reveal a novel relationship between exosome and chromatin insulators throughout the genome. ChIP-seq of exosome components. RNA-seq after control and exosome subunit knockdown in Drosophila cell lines.
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This is a dataset generated by the Drosophila Regulatory Elements modENCODE Project led by Kevin P. White at the University of Chicago. It contains genome-wide binding profile of the factor FAIRE from CNS generated by ChIP and analyzed on Illumina Genome Analyzer. For data usage terms and conditions, please refer to http://www.genome.gov/27528022 and http://www.genome.gov/Pages/Research/ENCODE/ENCODEDataReleasePolicyFinal2008.pdf A validated dataset is comprised of three biological replicates for ChIP-chip experiments and two replicates for ChIP-seq and meet the modENCODE quality standards. The control sample is the chromatin Input used for ChIP. Most factors binding profiles are generated by using specific antibodies for the protein of interest. However, some factors have been tagged by GFP in a transgenic line. In that case, ChIP is generated using an anti-GFP antibody. This submission represents the ChIP-seq component of the study.
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This is a dataset generated by the Drosophila Regulatory Elements modENCODE Project led by Kevin P. White at the University of Chicago. It contains genome-wide binding profile of the factor KW3-Trl-D2 from E8-16h generated by ChIP and analyzed on Illumina Genome Analyzer. For data usage terms and conditions, please refer to http://www.genome.gov/27528022 and http://www.genome.gov/Pages/Research/ENCODE/ENCODEDataReleasePolicyFinal2008.pdf A validated dataset is comprised of three biological replicates for ChIP-chip experiments and two replicates for ChIP-seq and meet the modENCODE quality standards. The control sample is the chromatin Input used for ChIP. Most factors binding profiles are generated by using specific antibodies for the protein of interest. However, some factors have been tagged by GFP in a transgenic line. In that case, ChIP is generated using an anti-GFP antibody. This submission represents the ChIP-seq component of the study
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This is a dataset generated by the Drosophila Regulatory Elements modENCODE Project led by Kevin P. White at the University of Chicago. It contains genome-wide binding profile of the factor KW3-D-D2 from E0-8h_D generated by ChIP and analyzed on Illumina Genome Analyzer. For data usage terms and conditions, please refer to http://www.genome.gov/27528022 and http://www.genome.gov/Pages/Research/ENCODE/ENCODEDataReleasePolicyFinal2008.pdf A validated dataset is comprised of three biological replicates for ChIP-chip experiments and two replicates for ChIP-seq and meet the modENCODE quality standards. The control sample is the chromatin Input used for ChIP. Most factors binding profiles are generated by using specific antibodies for the protein of interest. However, some factors have been tagged by KW3-D-D2 in a transgenic line. In that case, ChIP is generated using an anti-GFP antibody. This submission represents the ChIP-seq component of the study
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This is a dataset generated by the Drosophila Regulatory Elements modENCODE Project led by Kevin P. White at the University of Chicago. It contains genome-wide binding profile of the factor Trl from E0-8h generated by ChIP and analyzed on Illumina Genome Analyzer. For data usage terms and conditions, please refer to http://www.genome.gov/27528022 and http://www.genome.gov/Pages/Research/ENCODE/ENCODEDataReleasePolicyFinal2008.pdf A validated dataset is comprised of three biological replicates for ChIP-chip experiments and two replicates for ChIP-seq and meet the modENCODE quality standards. The control sample is the chromatin Input used for ChIP. Most factors binding profiles are generated by using specific antibodies for the protein of interest. However, some factors have been tagged by GFP in a transgenic line. In that case, ChIP is generated using an anti-GFP antibody. This submission represents the ChIP-seq component of the study.
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This is a dataset generated by the Drosophila Regulatory Elements modENCODE Project led by Kevin P. White at the University of Chicago. It contains genome-wide binding profile of the factor NW-GFP-Goat[tll] from E0-4h generated by ChIP and analyzed on Illumina Genome Analyzer. For data usage terms and conditions, please refer to http://www.genome.gov/27528022 and http://www.genome.gov/Pages/Research/ENCODE/ENCODEDataReleasePolicyFinal2008.pdf A validated dataset is comprised of three biological replicates for ChIP-chip experiments and two replicates for ChIP-seq and meet the modENCODE quality standards. The control sample is the chromatin Input used for ChIP. Most factors binding profiles are generated by using specific antibodies for the protein of interest. However, some factors have been tagged by GFP in a transgenic line. In that case, ChIP is generated using an anti-GFP antibody. This submission represents the ChIP-seq component of the study.
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This is a dataset generated by the Drosophila Regulatory Elements modENCODE Project led by Kevin P. White at the University of Chicago. It contains genome-wide binding profile of the factor NW-GFP-Goat[eve] from E1-6h generated by ChIP and analyzed on Illumina Genome Analyzer. For data usage terms and conditions, please refer to http://www.genome.gov/27528022 and http://www.genome.gov/Pages/Research/ENCODE/ENCODEDataReleasePolicyFinal2008.pdf A validated dataset is comprised of three biological replicates for ChIP-chip experiments and two replicates for ChIP-seq and meet the modENCODE quality standards. The control sample is the chromatin Input used for ChIP. Most factors binding profiles are generated by using specific antibodies for the protein of interest. However, some factors have been tagged by GFP in a transgenic line. In that case, ChIP is generated using an anti-GFP antibody. This submission represents the ChIP-seq component of the study.
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This is a dataset generated by the Drosophila Regulatory Elements modENCODE Project led by Kevin P. White at the University of Chicago. It contains genome-wide binding profile of the factor disco from E0-8h generated by ChIP and analyzed on Illumina Genome Analyzer. Keywords: Epigenetics For data usage terms and conditions, please refer to http://www.genome.gov/27528022 and http://www.genome.gov/Pages/Research/ENCODE/ENCODEDataReleasePolicyFinal2008.pdf A validated dataset is comprised of three biological replicates for ChIP-chip experiments and two replicates for ChIP-seq and meet the modENCODE quality standards. The control sample is the chromatin Input used for ChIP. Most factors binding profiles are generated by using specific antibodies for the protein of interest. However, some factors have been tagged by GFP in a transgenic line. In that case, ChIP is generated using an anti-GFP antibody. This submission represents the ChIP-seq component of the study
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This is a dataset generated by the Drosophila Regulatory Elements modENCODE Project led by Kevin P. White at the University of Chicago. It contains genome-wide binding profile of the factor GFP from 10T-E16-24h generated by ChIP and analyzed on Illumina Genome Analyzer. Keywords: Epigenetics For data usage terms and conditions, please refer to http://www.genome.gov/27528022 and http://www.genome.gov/Pages/Research/ENCODE/ENCODEDataReleasePolicyFinal2008.pdf A validated dataset is comprised of three biological replicates for ChIP-chip experiments and two replicates for ChIP-seq and meet the modENCODE quality standards. The control sample is the chromatin Input used for ChIP. Most factors binding profiles are generated by using specific antibodies for the protein of interest. However, some factors have been tagged by GFP in a transgenic line. In that case, ChIP is generated using an anti-GFP antibody. This submission represents the ChIP-seq component of the study
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