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The study investigates the change in osmolality and haemolymph constituents in marron Cherax cainii and yabbies Cherax destructor associated with moult stages, body weights and their feeding status. A total of 582 haemolymph samples from 5 moult stages (postmoult-AB, intermoult-C, and premoult stages – D0, D1, D2), two body weight classes (2–15g and 61–75g) and nutritional status were used for analysis of osmolality, protein, glucose, and ionic concentrations of potassium and chloride following the standard biochemical procedures. The haemolymph protein, glucose, potassium and chloride levels were highest at intermoult and early premoult stages, and lowest at postmoult in both crayfish species. Except protein, no significant differences were seen in analyzed parameters between various weight classes and two species. Haemolymph osmolality, protein and glucose were significantly higher in fed crayfish, whereas no variations in haemolymph potassium and chloride concentrations were observed between the fed and unfed crayfish. Maximum osmolality was recorded at 7–8h after feeding in both crayfish species. The results showed that the biochemical changes in the haemolymph of marron and yabbies are related to moult stages, body weight and feeding and thus can be used as tools for determining suitable diets.
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We discuss approximation of functions using deep neural nets. Given a function f on a d-dimensional manifold Γ⊂Rm, we construct a sparsely-connected depth-4 neural network and bound its error in approximating f. The size of the network depends on dimension and curvature of the manifold Γ, the complexity of f, in terms of its wavelet description, and only weakly on the ambient dimension m. Essentially, our network computes wavelet functions, which are computed from Rectified Linear Units (ReLU).
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Little is known about the prevalence of HBV genotypes/sub-genotypes in Jeddah province, although the hepatitis B virus (HBV) was identified as the most predominant type of hepatitis in Saudi Arabia. To characterize HBV genotypes/sub-genotypes, serum samples from 15 patients with chronic HBV were collected and subjected to HBsAg gene amplification and sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of the HBsAg gene sequences revealed that 11 (48%) isolates belonged to HBV/D while 4 (18%) were associated with HBV/C. Notably, a HBV/D sub-genotype phylogenetic tree identified that eight current isolates (72%) belonged to HBV/D1, whereas three isolates (28%) appeared to be more closely related to HBV/D5, although they formed a novel cluster supported by a branch with 99% bootstrap value. Isolates belonging to D1 were grouped in one branch and seemed to be more closely related to various strains isolated from different countries. For further determination of whether the three current isolates belonged to HBV/D5 or represented a novel sub-genotype, HBV/DA, whole HBV genome sequences would be required. In the present study, we verified that HBV/D1 is the most prevalent HBV sub-genotype in Jeddah, and identified novel variant mutations suggesting that an additional sub-genotype designated HBV/DA should be proposed. Overall, the results of the present HBsAg sequence analyses provide us with insights regarding the nucleotide differences between the present HBsAg/D isolates identified in the populace of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia and those previously isolated worldwide. Additional studies with large numbers of subjects in other areas might lead to the discovery of the specific HBV strain genotypes or even additional new sub-genotypes that are circulating in Saudi Arabia.
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The air pollutant fly ash was facile designed as a green catalyst and practical to organic synthesis. We have designed sulfated Bi2O3-fly ash catalyst (12wt%) and it was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), confocal Raman, Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field emission electron microscopy (FE-SEM), elemental color mapping, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) techniques. The sulfated Bi2O3-fly ash was found an excellent catalytic application for the synthesis of (6H-pyrido[3,2-b]carbazol-4-yl)aniline derivatives in water has been described. The synthesized (6H-pyrido[3,2-b]carbazol-4-yl)aniline derivatives were confirmed by spectral techniques Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS). The significant catalytic role of Bi–N interaction was readily form adduct, moreover Bi–O bond was favorable for hydrogen abstraction, dehydration and aromatization. Due to the strong potential, the precise reaction time and high yield have been achieved, which is realized from hot filtration test. The sulfated Bi2O3-fly ash catalyst could be reused for five successive run, the resulting in no appreciable change in the catalytic activity. The crystal phase and surface morphology of fifth run catalyst were examined by powder XRD, FE-SEM, EDS and TEM techniques, and the results revealed no changes in catalyst nature. The sulfated Bi2O3-fly ash catalyst has high efficiency, reusability, good catalytic activity, environmentally harmless and notable potential in industrial applications.
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Bioactive phenolic compounds are powerful antioxidants in traditionally used medicinal and industrial crop plants and have attracted increased interest in the last years in their application and role in non-destructive methodology for pre-screening analysis of some stress factors. In this study the qualitative target was linked with future possible applications of received data for improving non-destructive methodology as well as for improving existing knowledge regarding antioxidant content in some plant species. Comparative analysis of total phenolics, flavonoid contents, phenolic acid composition, and antioxidant activity in known east central Europe medicinal and industrial crop plants of 26 species of families Asteraceae, Rosaceae and Lamiaceae was done. Among the investigated leaf extracts the highest total phenolic, total flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity have been seen for Stachys byzantine L. (Lamiaceae), Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) and for Potentilla recta L. (Rosaceae). The highest syringic acid content has been found in the leaf extracts of plant family Asteraceae – in the range from 0.782 to 5.078mgg−1DW. The representative’s family Rosaceae has a higher content of p-anisic acid in the range 0.334–3.442mgg−1DW compared to the leaf extracts of families Lamiaceae and Asteraceae. The comparative study showed significant differences of content of phenolic acids in the leaf extracts of different representative’s families Rosaceae, Asteraceae and Lamiaceae. We suggest that the presence of some phenolic acids can be used as a possible marker for family botanical specifications of representative families Asteraceae and Rosaceae. It was supposed that some pharmacological effects can be connected with the analyzed data.
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La mayor parte de los seres vivos son capaces de realizar acciones que pueden ser consideradas inteligentes o al menos el resultado de un proceso de reacción adecuado ante las circunstancias cambiantes de su medio ambiente. Sin embargo, la inteligencia o los procesos intelectuales que desarrollan los seres humanos son enormemente superiores a los que logran los organismos de cualquier otra especie. El cerebro humano adulto es un órgano sumamente complejo: pesa aproximadamente 1.500g, lo que representa solo el 2% del peso corporal pero consume igual cantidad de energía que todo el músculo esquelético en reposo. Aunque el cerebro humano presenta una estructura típicamente primate, revela algunas características que lo distinguen y lo individualizan plenamente.
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Lethal and sub lethal effects of fresh and old residues of azadirachtin, spinosad, Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Bt var. k), and deltamethrin, were evaluated at their recommended field doses against adult and immature stages of Trichogramma brassicae under in vitro conditions. The experiments were carried out at the Entomology section of Division of Crop Protection, ICAR Research Complex for NEH region, Umiam, Meghalaya, in 2012–2013. The effects of different pesticides were determined by bioassays using the residual film method, the diet contamination method, the pupal dip method and the topical application technique. The four pesticides were found harmful to adult T. brassicae after ingestion, however surface contact bioassays revealed that Bt var. k was the least toxic pesticide. Except Bt var. k, other three pesticides were found harmful also to the immature stages of T. brassicae and significantly affected parasitism potential, adult emergence, longevity of adults, and sex ratio of the progeny. Deltamethrin and azadirachtin were the most harmful, even after 15days of application. Spinosad was found to be relatively safe to T. brassicae after 15days of application. As Bt appeared to be the least toxic pesticide for T. brassicae, it could be used for the management of severe infestations of lepidopteran pests in cruciferous ecosystems.
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Phenolic acid composition, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities in leaves of four Kalanchoe (Crassulaceae) species were evaluated. Determination of phenolic acid contents were conducted by an optimized LC–ESI-MS/MS method. The results show that Kalanchoe daigremontiana Raym.-Hamet & H. Perrier (using ASE extraction) and Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Pers. contain the highest amounts of phenolic acids, while Kalanchoe nyikae Engl. the lowest ones. Among phenolic acids ferulic, caffeic and protocatechuic acids were occurring in the highest quantities in the analysed species. The greatest amounts of ferulic and protocatechuic acids were found in K. daigremontiana and K. pinnata. Moreover, the antiradical and cytotoxic activities of Kalanchoe extracts were investigated. All tested extracts possessed antioxidant activity. The obtained IC50 values (μg/mL) ranged from 49.9μg/mL to 1410μg/mL, indicating a large variation of the activity of the analysed extracts. Cytotoxicity assays revealed dose-dependent effects in the cells lines tested. Only K. pinnata extract showed a high cytotoxicity against the H-9 human T cell line. Other extracts (K. daigremontiana, Kalanchoe milloti, K. nyikae) showed more pronounced cytotoxicity towards J45.01 cells (human acute lymphoblastic leukaemia T cells).
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In light of the rapid increasing demand for high-precision ultrasonic technologies for damage detection in composite structures, it is necessary to give a further study on the ultrasonic attenuation characteristics, with consideration of the combined effects of material anisotropy and viscoelasticity, and the frequency characteristics of the individual attenuation component. In the present paper, based on the time-domain finite element analysis of ultrasonic wave propagation in a two-layered fiber/matrix composite material, a new method is presented. In the method, by means of extracting the individual attenuation components (viscoelastic attenuation, scattering attenuation due to interface defects, and energy dissipation at the interface) from the overall attenuation respectively, the variation behavior of them with material anisotropy and viscoelasticity, and incident wave frequency, are quantitatively evaluated. The change of proportion of individual attenuation components in overall attenuation under different conditions are also investigated. From the results, the energy loss at the interface is always a major part in ultrasonic attenuation characteristics. Each attenuation component shows frequency dependence, especially the viscoelastic attenuation and energy dissipation at the interface. The simulation results also clarified the detailed effect mechanism of material viscoelasticity and anisotropy on the attenuation characteristics, which will encourage the further development of attenuation measurements for damage detection in composite structures.
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