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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as key players in host–pathogen interaction and many virus-encoded miRNAs have been identified (computationally and/or experimentally) in a variety of organisms. A novel Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrosis virus (BmNPV)-encoded miRNA miR-415 was previously identified through high-throughput sequencing. In this study, a BmNPV-miR-415 expression vector was constructed and transfected into BmN cells. The differentially expressed protein target of rapamycin isoform 2 (TOR2) was observed through two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Results showed that TOR2 is not directly a target gene of BmNPV-miR-415, but its expression is up-regulated by BmNPV-miR-415 via Bmo-miR-5738, which could be induced by BmNPV.
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The recent study on active amorphous catalytic materials provokes rethinking of the previous research on atomic and electronic structures in the crystalline catalyst. Is there any active catalyst with biphasic structure, in particular the integration of crystalline and amorphous components? Inspired by this question, a crystalline-amorphous biphasic quaternary oxide catalyst is novelly fabricated via one-step solvothermal method in this work. The as-prepared catalyst displays a well-designed core–shell architecture composed of crystalline Co(ZnxNi2−x)O4 nanorod (core) and amorphous NiO nanosheet (shell). This heterogeneous core–shell catalyst exhibits high activity in the oxygen evolution reaction by demonstrating a low over-potential of 1.57V vs RHE, a high half-wave potential (0.89V vs RHE), and long-term electrochemical stability for 25h. It is found that the synergistic effects from the amorphization of the shell on the one hand, and the atomic/electronic structure of the crystalline core on the other hand, could significantly facilitate the catalytic activity both at the surface and in the bulk volume of the solid oxides. Therefore, this new developed crystalline-amorphous biphasic catalyst could provide instructive roles in the future design of new catalysts for O2 evolution and other catalytic reactions.
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A series of novel (isopropylidene) uridine-[1,2,3]triazole hybrids (3a–3n) were efficiently synthesized via the copper-catalyzed azide–alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) from N-propargyl 2′,3′-O-(isopropylidene) uridine with different aryl azides. All the synthesized compounds were screened for their in vitro anticancer and antibacterial activities. The anticancer activity results revealed that compounds 3d and 3f have registered equipotent activity against MCF-7 and 3n has shown excellent activity against HeLa in comparison with the standard drug Cisplatin. Remaining compounds have shown moderate to good anticancer activity against MCF-7 and HeLa cell lines. The antibacterial activity screening results revealed that, compounds 3b and 3n have shown excellent inhibition against Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, 3d against Proteus vulgaris, 3k against Staphylococcus aureus and 3l against S. aureus and B. subtilis have shown equipotent activity in comparison with the standard drug Streptomycin.
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The management control systems (MCS) literature has long recognized the importance of values and beliefs (e.g., Ouchi, 1979; Simons, 1995). However, in this literature, values and beliefs are typically presented in the context of mission statements or company slogans that can play little substantive role in shaping actions and behaviors. In this paper we focus on how MCS can play a more active role in values expression, and examine the potential for performance measurement systems (PMS) to be used within organizations to express the values and beliefs of organizational members. This use of PMS, which we term its expressive role, is important as pluralistic and expressive forms of organizing are becoming more prevalent. Furthermore, prior research indicates that enabling the expression of values and beliefs by organizational members can generate energy and commitment that are important to the achievement of organizational objectives. In a field study of a mental health development project in a non-government organization, we examine the design and operational characteristics that are important for the expressive role of PMS. We also examine the interplay between the expressive role and the instrumental role of PMS and identify circumstances in which these roles can clash and/or be complementary.
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Antipatharia are a diverse group of corals with many species found in deep water. Many Antipatharia are habitat for associates, have extreme longevity and some species can occur beyond 8500m depth. As they are major constituents of׳coral gardens’, which are Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems (VMEs), knowledge of their distribution and environmental requirements is an important pre-requisite for informed conservation planning particularly where the expense and difficulty of deep-sea sampling prohibits comprehensive surveys.
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This study evaluated the effectiveness of dry ashing of soils and subsequent spectral subtraction procedure in comparison with alternative chemical methods in accentuating organics for diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopic analysis of soil organic matter composition. Chemical oxidation of soil with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and demineralisation by hydrofluoric acid (HF) treatment were assessed as possible alternatives to the dry ashing method. Surface samples (0–10cm) of four contrasting soils i.e., Ferralsol, Luvisol, Vertisol and Solonetz were used in the study. We observed the spectral changes before and after pre-treatments using DRIFT spectroscopy of bulk soils and their respective four separated density fractions (2.6gcm−3). Dry ashing of soils altered the absorption bands of gibbsite and goethite in the Ferralsol; however, phyllosilicate bands in the Luvisol, Vertisol and Solonetz remained largely unaffected. The organic bands were incompletely removed by the dry ashing method and shifts in some major organic bands were also noticed. Thus the accuracy of the dry ashed spectral subtraction was limited due to the mineral and organic bands alteration. The NaOCl treatment oxidised labile organic carbon (OC) (e.g., aliphatics) without any mineral alteration, but the rest of the OC fractions remained largely unaffected. Therefore, the result of spectral subtraction of the NaOCl treated samples from original spectra was ambiguous. The HF treatment removed minerals efficiently from both bulk soils and density fractions, which noticeably highlighted the organic bands with little or no mineral interferences in the spectra of the treated samples. HF treatment also removed a small portion of the total OC that was associated with minerals. We conclude that HF treatment was more effective than dry ashing and NaOCl oxidation to accentuate organics in the soil DRIFT spectra, since it provided mineral interference free spectra with in general least affected organic bands. Thus, HF treatment of soil offers a potential pre-treatment method for improved spectroscopic characterisation of soil organic matter.
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Urban parks improve quality of life by providing an array of cultural and natural ecosystem services, such as maintaining biodiversity, reducing air pollution, and benefiting residents' physical and mental states. Although government invests a large amount of capital into park management, parks are still underused in many cases. In this study, the association and relative importance of socio-demographic, environmental, and individual factors were investigated with regards to their impact on citizens' park visitation. Data was collected through cross-sectional door-to-door questionnaires and online databases, and was analyzed using a hierarchical regression model. Results showed that physical exercise (27.4% of collected reports) and rest and relaxation (26.7%) were the two most widespread reasons for park use. When asked about constraints of park visitation, time limitations were reported as being the most constraining factor. However, our quantitative analysis found no significant correlation. Socio-demographic, environmental, and individual variables explained 1%, 20% and 26% (adjusted R2) of the total variance in frequency of park visitation between participants, respectively. A citizen's neighborhood greenspace, housing price, and distance from the nearest park were negatively correlated with park use. Among individual factors, a participant's reported affinity for park visits, time spent in their residential greenspace, and number of children under seven were positively correlated with park visitation, with a decreasingβcoefficient. This research highlights the predominant contribution of attitude over accessibility factors when it comes to park visitation. Furthermore, the data indicates that accessibility factors function differently for frequent, infrequent, and moderate park users and provision with parks within 1000 m of their home is recommended. The findings have implications for park management and future research.
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Evaluating innovative process technologies has become highly important within the last decades. As standard tools different Life Cycle Assessment methods have been established, which are continuously improved. While those are designed for evaluating single processes they run into difficulties when it comes to assessing environmental impacts of process innovations at macroeconomic level. In this paper we develop a multi-step evaluation framework building on multi regional input–output data that allows estimating macroeconomic impacts of new process technologies, considering the network characteristics of the global economy.
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As a way of disposing municipal solid waste, waste-to-energy not only generates energy but also reduces greenhouse gas emissions. Indeed, waste-to-energy plays a crucial role in addressing various environmental issues such as climate change and security of energy supply. Two waste-to-energy approaches were compared with simple landfill in this study, i.e. incineration with energy recovery (electricity and heat), and landfill with landfill gas utilization. It is imperative to investigate which approach is more effective in terms of GHG emission reduction in the context of different climatic conditions. The effects on GHG emission reductions are examined in the Temperate Dry Zone and Tropical Moist Zone. An assumption is made that in 2020, the waste disposal approach will be switched from simple landfill to waste-to-energy approach in China. The contribution of different waste disposal approach to the GHG reduction (1 t municipal solid waste annually) during 2020–2060 is examined in this paper. Both landfill gas utilization and incineration with energy recovery approaches reduce GHG emissions in all cases compared to the simple landfill. However, this study revealed that landfill gas power generation system is more effective in the Tropical Moist Zone, whereas incineration with energy recovery is a better choice in the Temperate Dry Zone according to the comprehensive benefit. Similarly, the improvement of landfill gas collection rate and the heat recovery efficiency play a crucial role to reduce greenhouse gas emissions during the process of managing the municipal solid waste.
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Companies are increasingly encouraged to frame their sustainability activities and communication around ecological limits, as captured by concepts such as planetary boundaries, climate tipping points or regenerative capacity. Ecological limits may serve as scientific basis for defining environmental sustainability targets at the company level and, moreover, inspire companies to align their product portfolios with emerging societal needs related to sustainable transformations. Although corporate environmental reporting is widely researched, little attention has, hitherto, been given to company use of the ecological limits concepts in stakeholder communication.
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