Contributors:Weixiong Chen, Quanbin Zhao, Yingchun Wang, Palash Kumar Sen, Daotong Chong, Junjie Yan
Frequency spectrograms distribution along the axial direction (R/D=2).
... Frequency spectrograms of condensation oscillation .
... Frequency spectrograms under radial position of R/D=3.0 and R/D=4.0.
... Half affected width of pressure oscillation.
... Pressure oscillation... Oscillation power axial distribution for low frequency region.
Variation of frequency shift due to the amplitude and the rotation rate.
... Conditions for zero frequency shift and zero pressure difference. Broken lines indicate linear fitting lines through the origin.
... Oscillation... Frequency shift
Qubit... The oscillation period T0 changes with the temperature T and Coulomb bound potential β.
... The oscillation period T0 changes with the temperature T and electron phonon coupling strength α .
Contributors:Feng Liu, JiaFu Wang, Wei Wang
(a) The SNR vs noise intensity D for fs=30,15, and 100 Hz, respectively. (b) The mean synaptic input Isyn(t) vs time for fs=30 Hz and D=0.15 and 6, respectively. (c) The SNR for various frequencies for the cases of D=0.5 and 5, respectively, in the case of I0i=0.8 and I1=0.11, and Jij∈[−4,20]. (d) The SNR vs signal frequency for D=0.5 and 5, respectively, for the case of I0i∈[0,1] and I1=0.072.
... Intrinsic oscillations... The 40 Hz oscillation... The frequency sensitivity... The frequency fi and the corresponding height H of the main peak in PSD of Isyn(t) vs (a) A for the case of I0i∈[0,3.5]; (b) M in the case of Jij∈[−5,10].
... I0i∈[0,2] and Jij∈[−1,10]. (a) The spatiotemporal firing pattern is plotted by recording the firing time tni defined by Xi(tni)>0 and Xi(tni−)frequency fi and the corresponding height H of the main peak in PSD of Isyn(t) for different coupling strength.
Contributors:Ch. Wunderlich, Ch. Balzer
Illustration of a linear ion trap including an axial magnetic field gradient. The static field makes individual ions distinguishable in frequency space by Zeeman-shifting their internal energy levels (solid horizontal lines represent qubit states). In addition, it mediates the coupling between internal and external degrees of freedom when a driving field is applied (dashed horizontal lines stand for vibrational energy levels of the ion string, see text).
... Rabi oscillations on the optical E2 transition S1/2-D5/2 in Ba + . A fit of the data (solid line) yields a Rabi frequency of 71.4 × 2πkHz and a transversal relaxation time of 100 μs (determined by the coherence time of the ir light used to drive the E2 resonance).
... Illustration of the coupled system ‘qubit ⊗ harmonic oscillator’ in a trap with magnetic field gradient. Internal qubit transitions lead to a displacement dz of the ion from its initial equilibrium position and consequently to the excitation of vibrational motion. In the formal description the usual Lamb–Dicke parameter is replaced by a new effective one (see text).
... (a) Relevant energy levels and transitions in 138Ba + . (b) Schematic drawing of major experimental elements. OPO: Optical parametric oscillator; YAG: Nd:YAG laser; LD: laser diode; DSP: Digital signal processing system allows for real time control of experimental parameters; AOM: Acousto-optic modulators used as optical switches and for tuning of laser light; PM: Photo multiplier tube, serves for detection of resonance fluorescence. All lasers are frequency and intensity stabilized (not shown).
... Schematic drawing of the resonances of qubits j and j + 1 with some accompanying sideband resonances. The angular frequency vN corresponds to the Nth axial vibrational mode, and the frequency separation between carrier resonances is denoted by δω.
Contributors:Xu-Chu Cai, Jun-Fang Liu
Nonlinear oscillator... He’s frequency formulation
Comparison of the oscillation in Fig. 17 and the basic frequency component L in Fig. 23. The replacement of the feedback channel loops by open areas for vortical flow made the feedback paths slightly shorter (and therefore the frequency higher).... Measured oscillationfrequency with different feedback tube lengths of the oscillator shown in Fig. 7, plotted as a function of the supplied flow rate. Surprisingly, the frequency is neither proportional to the flow rate (as is usual in the constant Strouhal-number oscillators, e.g., Tesař et al., 2006) – nor constant (as in the oscillators with resonator channel (Tesař et al., 2013)).
... Fluidic oscillator... Results of measured dependence of oscillationfrequency on the supplied flow rate in the layout shown in Figs. 20 and 12. Apart from basic frequency L, the output spectrum exhibited a much higher frequency component H.
... Frequency of generated oscillation plotted as a function of the air flow rate. Similarly as in Fig. 9 this dependence does not the fit the usual (constant Strouhal number) proportionality between frequency and flow rate.
... Basic data on the geometry of the oscillator used in the high-frequency experiments.
... Dependence of bubble natural oscillationfrequency on the size – based on the measurements in Tesař (2013b). The line is fitted for constant value of oscillation Weber number We0.
Contributors:György Buzsáki, Fernando Lopes da Silva
Spontaneously occurring fast ‘ripple’ oscillations (400–500Hz) in the neocortex of the rat during high-voltage spindles. (A) Averaged high-voltage spindles and associated unit firing histograms from layers IV–VI. (B) Wide-band (a and a′; 1Hz–5kHz), filtered field (b and b′; 200–800Hz), and filtered unit (c and c′; 0.5–5kHz) traces from layers IV and V, respectively. (C) Averaged fast waves and corresponding unit histograms. The field ripples are filtered (200–800Hz) derivatives of the wide-band signals recorded from 16 sites. Note the sudden phase-reversal of the oscillating waves (arrows) but locking of unit discharges (dashed lines). These phase reversed dipoles likely reflect synchronous discharge of layer 5 neurons in the vicinity of the recording electrode.
... Self-organized burst of activity in the CA3 region of the hippocampus produces a sharp wave sink in the apical dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons and also discharge interneurons. The interactions between the discharging pyramidal cells and interneurons give rise to a short-lived fast oscillation (‘ripple’; 140–200Hz), which can be detected as a field potential in the somatic layer. The strong CA1 population burst brings about strongly synchronized activity in the target populations of parahippocampal structures as well. These parahippocampal ripples are slower and less synchronous, compared to CA1 ripples.
Contributors:B.M.R. Schneider, C. Gollub, K.-L. Kompa, R. de Vivie-Riedle
PES of the qubit system (a) and total dipole surface (b). For both surfaces: −52.8 pm⩽rA1⩽+52.8pm and −37.4pm⩽rE⩽+37.4pm.
... Normal modes included in the quantum dynamical calculation. (a) Coordinates of the qubit modes, (b) coordinates of the non-qubit modes.
... Spectral analysis of the NOT (top) and CNOT (bottom) gate. The solid lines correspond to the spectra of the optimized pulses, the dashed lines to the spectra of the sub pulses. The vertical lines indicate the relevant qubit basis transition frequencies for the quantum gates.
... spectroscopical data of the qubit vibrational modes E and A1 and the non-qubit modes, the δ-deformation mode (E) and the dissociative mode (A1)
Dependence of the phase shift α on the two parameters ng and Φe. The qubit is irradiated by microwaves with a frequency of 8.0GHz. The periodic circular structure is due to the variation of the total interferometer-tank impedance caused by transitions from the lower to the upper energy band. The “crater ridges” (solid-line ellipse) correspond to all combinations of the parameters ng and Φe that give the same energy gap (8.0GHz) between the respective states .
... Tank phase shift α dependence on gate parameter ng for different magnetic flux applied to the qubit loop . The data correspond to the flux Φ/Φ0=0.5, 0.53, 0.54, 0.56, 0.57. 0.61, 0.62, 0.65 (from bottom to top). For clarity, the upper curves are shifted.
... Superconducting qubits... Integrated design: Al qubit fabricated in the middle of the Nb coil (left-hand side), and single-Cooper-pair transistor (right-hand side).
... Left-hand side: tank phase shift α dependence on gate parameter ng without microwave power (lowest curve) and with microwave power at different excitation frequencies. The data correspond to the frequency of the microwave ΩMW/2π=8.9, 7.5, 6.0GHz (from top to bottom) . Here the applied external magnetic flux was fixed Φdc=Φ0/2. For clarity, the upper curves are shifted. Right-hand side: energy gap Δ between the ground and upper states of the qubit determined from the experimental data for the case δ=π (Φdc=Φ0/2) . The dots represent the experimental data, the solid line corresponds to the fit (cf. text).
... Calculated dependence of the tank voltage phase shift α on the phase difference δ. The curves correspond to the fixed frequency Ω/2π=7.05GHz with the different amplitude of the excitation (from bottom to top n˜g is: 0.1, 0.2, 0.4) . For clarity, the upper curves are shifted.