The air pollutant fly ash was facile designed as a green catalyst and practical to organic synthesis. We have designed sulfated Bi2O3-fly ash catalyst (12wt%) and it was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), confocal Raman, Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field emission electron microscopy (FE-SEM), elemental color mapping, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) techniques. The sulfated Bi2O3-fly ash was found an excellent catalytic application for the synthesis of (6H-pyrido[3,2-b]carbazol-4-yl)aniline derivatives in water has been described. The synthesized (6H-pyrido[3,2-b]carbazol-4-yl)aniline derivatives were confirmed by spectral techniques Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS). The significant catalytic role of Bi–N interaction was readily form adduct, moreover Bi–O bond was favorable for hydrogen abstraction, dehydration and aromatization. Due to the strong potential, the precise reaction time and high yield have been achieved, which is realized from hot filtration test. The sulfated Bi2O3-fly ash catalyst could be reused for five successive run, the resulting in no appreciable change in the catalytic activity. The crystal phase and surface morphology of fifth run catalyst were examined by powder XRD, FE-SEM, EDS and TEM techniques, and the results revealed no changes in catalyst nature. The sulfated Bi2O3-fly ash catalyst has high efficiency, reusability, good catalytic activity, environmentally harmless and notable potential in industrial applications.
Contributors:M.A. Rosales-Reynoso, P. Barros-Núñez, C.I. Juárez-Vázquez
La mayor parte de los seres vivos son capaces de realizar acciones que pueden ser consideradas inteligentes o al menos el resultado de un proceso de reacción adecuado ante las circunstancias cambiantes de su medio ambiente. Sin embargo, la inteligencia o los procesos intelectuales que desarrollan los seres humanos son enormemente superiores a los que logran los organismos de cualquier otra especie. El cerebro humano adulto es un órgano sumamente complejo: pesa aproximadamente 1.500g, lo que representa solo el 2% del peso corporal pero consume igual cantidad de energía que todo el músculo esquelético en reposo. Aunque el cerebro humano presenta una estructura típicamente primate, revela algunas características que lo distinguen y lo individualizan plenamente.
Lethal and sub lethal effects of fresh and old residues of azadirachtin, spinosad, Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Bt var. k), and deltamethrin, were evaluated at their recommended field doses against adult and immature stages of Trichogramma brassicae under in vitro conditions. The experiments were carried out at the Entomology section of Division of Crop Protection, ICAR Research Complex for NEH region, Umiam, Meghalaya, in 2012–2013. The effects of different pesticides were determined by bioassays using the residual film method, the diet contamination method, the pupal dip method and the topical application technique. The four pesticides were found harmful to adult T. brassicae after ingestion, however surface contact bioassays revealed that Bt var. k was the least toxic pesticide. Except Bt var. k, other three pesticides were found harmful also to the immature stages of T. brassicae and significantly affected parasitism potential, adult emergence, longevity of adults, and sex ratio of the progeny. Deltamethrin and azadirachtin were the most harmful, even after 15days of application. Spinosad was found to be relatively safe to T. brassicae after 15days of application. As Bt appeared to be the least toxic pesticide for T. brassicae, it could be used for the management of severe infestations of lepidopteran pests in cruciferous ecosystems.
Contributors:Małgorzata Kasprzycka, Anna Bogucka-Kocka, Katarzyna Szewczyk, Grażyna Szymczak, Christian Zidorn
Phenolic acid composition, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities in leaves of four Kalanchoe (Crassulaceae) species were evaluated. Determination of phenolic acid contents were conducted by an optimized LC–ESI-MS/MS method. The results show that Kalanchoe daigremontiana Raym.-Hamet & H. Perrier (using ASE extraction) and Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Pers. contain the highest amounts of phenolic acids, while Kalanchoe nyikae Engl. the lowest ones. Among phenolic acids ferulic, caffeic and protocatechuic acids were occurring in the highest quantities in the analysed species. The greatest amounts of ferulic and protocatechuic acids were found in K. daigremontiana and K. pinnata. Moreover, the antiradical and cytotoxic activities of Kalanchoe extracts were investigated. All tested extracts possessed antioxidant activity. The obtained IC50 values (μg/mL) ranged from 49.9μg/mL to 1410μg/mL, indicating a large variation of the activity of the analysed extracts. Cytotoxicity assays revealed dose-dependent effects in the cells lines tested. Only K. pinnata extract showed a high cytotoxicity against the H-9 human T cell line. Other extracts (K. daigremontiana, Kalanchoe milloti, K. nyikae) showed more pronounced cytotoxicity towards J45.01 cells (human acute lymphoblastic leukaemia T cells).
Contributors:Hong Xia, Ran Li, Toshiaki Natsuki, Qing-Qing Ni
In light of the rapid increasing demand for high-precision ultrasonic technologies for damage detection in composite structures, it is necessary to give a further study on the ultrasonic attenuation characteristics, with consideration of the combined effects of material anisotropy and viscoelasticity, and the frequency characteristics of the individual attenuation component. In the present paper, based on the time-domain finite element analysis of ultrasonic wave propagation in a two-layered fiber/matrix composite material, a new method is presented. In the method, by means of extracting the individual attenuation components (viscoelastic attenuation, scattering attenuation due to interface defects, and energy dissipation at the interface) from the overall attenuation respectively, the variation behavior of them with material anisotropy and viscoelasticity, and incident wave frequency, are quantitatively evaluated. The change of proportion of individual attenuation components in overall attenuation under different conditions are also investigated. From the results, the energy loss at the interface is always a major part in ultrasonic attenuation characteristics. Each attenuation component shows frequency dependence, especially the viscoelastic attenuation and energy dissipation at the interface. The simulation results also clarified the detailed effect mechanism of material viscoelasticity and anisotropy on the attenuation characteristics, which will encourage the further development of attenuation measurements for damage detection in composite structures.
Contributors:Dongqing Zhang, Zhenggang He, Zhaoxia Guo, Haitao Liu, Leyuan Shi
This paper addresses a green transportation scheduling problem with realistic constraints widely existing in make-to-order manufacturing supply chains, such as pickup time and transport mode selections. The mathematical model of this problem is presented, which is formulated as a bi-objective mixed integer nonlinear program. The problem is simplified first by converting this program to a bi-objective integer nonlinear program. A novel evolution-strategy-based memetic Pareto optimization (ESMPO) approach is then developed to handle this new program, in which a multi-objective local search process is proposed to seek promising neighboring individuals and the faster nondominated sorting procedure is introduced into the memetic algorithm to perform multi-objective sorting. The performance of the proposed ESMPO approach is evaluated by numerical experiments based on industrial data and industrial-sized problems. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach can effectively solve the investigated problem by generating much better solutions than 3 other metaheuristic-based Pareto optimization approaches and the industrial method do.
Contributors:Maria Catarina Megumi Kasuya, José Maria Rodrigues da Luz, Sabrina Feliciano Oliveira, Luiz Orlando Ladeira, Ary Correa Junior
The majority of the textile dyes are harmful to the environment and potentially carcinogenic. Among strategies for their exclusion, the treatment of dye contaminated wastewater with fungal extract, containing lignin peroxidase (LiP), may be useful. Two fungi isolates, Pleurotus ostreatus (PLO9) and Ganoderma lucidum (GRM117), produced the enzymatic extract by fermentation in the lignocellulosic residue, Jatropha curcas seed cake. The extracts from PLO9 and GRM117 were immobilized on carbon nanotubes and showed an increase of 18 and 27-fold of LiP specific activity compared to the free enzyme. Also, LiP from both fungi extracts showed higher Vmax and lower Km values. Only the immobilized extracts could be efficiently reused in the dye decolourization, contrary, the carbon nanotubes became saturated and they should be discarded over time. This device may offer a final biocatalyst with higher catalytic efficiency and capability to be reused in the dye decolourization process.
Contributors:Qingwen Zhan, Shuangyan Li, Dezhi Zhang, Yuche Chen
This study proposes an optimization model that simultaneously incorporates the selection of logistics infrastructure investments and subsidies for green transport modes to achieve specific CO2 emission targets in a regional logistics network. The proposed model is formulated as a bi-level formulation, in which the upper level determines the optimal selection of logistics infrastructure investments and subsidies for green transport modes such that the benefit–cost ratio of the entire logistics system is maximized. The lower level describes the selected service routes of logistics users. A genetic and Frank–Wolfe hybrid algorithm is introduced to solve the proposed model. The proposed model is applied to the regional logistics network of Changsha City, China. Findings show that using the joint scheme of the selection of logistics infrastructure investments and green subsidies is more effective than using them solely. Carbon emission reduction targets can significantly affect logistics infrastructure investments and subsidy levels.
In dealing with the multiplicity problem of large dataset, clusters or families of hypotheses are often the units of interest. A scoring method is motivated in adopting a rejection space for p-values that are classified into spatial or labeled groups. A score that measures the benefits/costs of making a true/false discovery is computed and rejection space that maximizes the number of rejections with positive score is adopted. Renewal and boundary-crossing theories are used to compute the exceedance probability of the score. Level of strong group type I error control is validated using Monte Carlo and importance sampling methods. It is shown that the scoring method maintains detection power and achieves robustness against model deviation. The scoring method is applied on a copy number variation tumor dataset and short intervals of the chromosome with biological relevance are identified.