Contributors:Ian Jeffreys, Genevieve Graves, Michael Roth
This study evaluates effectiveness of driver education teaching greater fuel efficiency (Eco-Driving) in a real world setting in Australia. The driving behaviour, measured in fuel use (litres per 100km of travel) of a sample of 1056 private drivers was monitored over seven months. 853 drivers received education in eco-driving techniques and 203 were monitored as a control group. A simple experimental design was applied comparing the pre and post training fuel use of the treated sample compared to a control sample. This study found the driver education led to a statistically significant reduction in fuel use of 4.6% or 0.51 litres per 100km compared to the control group.
Contributors:M. Sikirou, A. Shittu, K.A. Konaté, A.T. Maji, A.S. Ngaujah, K.A. Sanni, S.A. Ogunbayo, I. Akintayo, K. Saito, K.N. Dramé, A. Ahanchédé, R. Venuprasad
Iron (Fe) toxicity is recognized as one of the most widely spread soil constraints for rice production especially in West Africa. Oryza glaberrima the cultivated rice species that originated from West Africa is well-adapted to its growing ecologies. The aim of this study was to identify the promising O. glaberrima accessions tolerant to Fe toxicity from the 2106 accessions held at the AfricaRice gene bank. The screenings were conducted over a four-year period and involved evaluating the entries under Fe-toxic field conditions in West Africa, selecting good yielding accessions and repeating the testing with newly selected lines. Three accessions (TOG 7206, TOG 6218-B and TOG 7250-A) were higher yielding than O. sativa checks under stress but with similar yields under control conditions. These accessions yielded over 300g/m2 under both Fe toxicity and control conditions. In conclusion, these materials could be used as donors in breeding programs for developing high yielding rice varieties suited to Fe toxicity affected areas in West Africa.
This study aimed to produce inexpensive 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) in a non-sterile latex rubber sheet wastewater (RSW) by Rhodopseudomonas palustris TN114 and PP803 for the possibility to use in agricultural purposes by investigating the optimum conditions, and applying of wood vinegar (WV) as an economical source of levulinic acid to enhance ALA content. The Box–Behnken Design experiment was conducted under microaerobic-light conditions for 96h with TN114, PP803 and their mixed culture (1:1) by varying initial pH, inoculum size (% v/v) and initial chemical oxygen demand (COD, mg/L). Results showed that the optimal condition (pH, % inoculum size, COD) of each set to produce extracellular ALA was found at 7.50, 6.00, 2000 for TN114; 7.50, 7.00, 3000 for PP803; and 7.50, 6.00, 4000 for a mixed culture; and each set achieved COD reduction as high as 63%, 71% and 75%, respectively. Addition of the optimal concentration of WV at mid log phase at 0.63% for TN114, and 1.25% for PP803 and the mixed culture significantly increased the ALA content by 3.7–4.2times (128, 90 and 131μM, respectively) compared to their controls. ALA production cost could be reduced approximately 31times with WV on the basis of the amount of levulinic acid used. Effluent containing ALA for using in agriculture could be achieved by treating the RSW with the selected ALA producer R. palustris strains under the optimized condition with a little WV additive.
Finite mixture modeling is one of the most rapidly developing areas of statistics due to its modeling flexibility and appealing interpretability. Gaussian mixture models have been popular among researchers for decades proving their usefulness in various applications. However, when Gaussian mixture components do not provide an adequate fit for the data, more general models must be considered. Traditional remedies for deviation from normality include employing a more appropriate distribution as well as transforming data to near-normality. Merging both approaches by introducing a mixture model with components derived from the multivariate Manly transformation is proposed. Such mixture models show good performance in modeling skewness and have excellent interpretability. Forward and backward model selection algorithms are proposed to choose an appropriate multivariate transformation. At each step of these algorithms, a model with the specific combination of skewness parameters is estimated by means of the expectation–maximization algorithm. The developed technique is carefully illustrated on synthetic data and applied to several well-known datasets, with promising results.
Given a many-to-one bi-modal transportation network where each origin is connected to the destination by a bottleneck-constrained highway and a parallel transit line, we investigate the parking permit management methods to minimize traffic time cost and traffic emission cost simultaneously. More importantly, the optimal supply of parking spots is also discussed in the policies of parking permit. First, we derive the total travel costs and emission costs for the two cases of sufficient and insufficient parking spot provisions at the destination. Second, we propose a bi-objective model and solve the Pareto optimal parking permit distribution, given a certain level of parking supply. Third, we investigate the optimal parking supply in the policy of parking permit distribution, with the objectives of minimizing both total travel cost and traffic emission. Fourth, we provide a model of optimizing parking supply, in the policy of free trading of parking permits. Finally, the numerical examples are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of these schemes, and the numerical results show that restricting parking supply at the city center could be efficient to reduce traffic emission.
Contributors:Rachel Wood, Federico Bernaldo de Quirós, José-Manuel Maíllo-Fernández, José-Miguel Tejero, Ana Neira, Thomas Higham
The majority of archaeological remains found at El Castillo in northern Iberia were excavated between 1910 and 1914 by Hugo Obermaier. Since the 1980s El Castillo has been studied through a detailed analysis of Obermaier's original excavation notes, the cleaning and study of the extant section, and the excavation of material in the shelter entrance. Radiocarbon dating of charcoal from the modern (1980s onwards) excavation suggested that unit 18, corresponding to Aurignacian Delta of the 1910s excavation, was significantly earlier than other Aurignacian assemblages in western Europe. Combined with a reanalysis of the lithic and osseous industry, these dates led to the suggestion that material in unit 18 and Aurignacian Delta was a transitional industry, showing a gradual transformation of the Mousterian into the Upper Palaeolithic. The conclusion has profound implications for understanding the appearance of the Upper Palaeolithic in western Europe. However, the theory has been heavily debated, with criticism focusing on the analysis of the lithic and bone assemblage as well as the chronology. We focus on the latter, and assess whether the original dates were accurate, whether they were well associated with the archaeology, and whether there was vertical and lateral variation in the age of the assemblages within unit 18 and Aurignacian Delta. New radiocarbon dates on humanly modified bone suggest that in the new area of excavation, unit 18 is found to be earlier than 42 cal kBP, with no evidence of material of a younger age. In contrast, in the old excavation area, Aurignacian Delta does include material of a younger age. This suggests that discussion of the Transitional Aurignacian can only include material from unit 18, in the new area of excavation.
Contributors:Gulzar Ahmad Nayik, Yogita Suhag, Ishrat Majid, Vikas Nanda
The study was intended to characterize three honeys (acacia, pine honeydew and multifloral) from high altitude Kashmir valley of India according to their macro minerals (K, Ca, Na and P), antioxidant properties and sugar parameters. The result for total phenolic content (22.68–59.84mg GAE/100g) and total flavonoid content (6.10–8.12mg QE/100g), revealed that honeys from Kashmir valley have high antioxidant activity. Principal component analysis (PCA), explained more than 81% of the variance. Four sugars were identified and quantified by HPLC, which include monosaccharides and disaccharides. Chemometric methods such as principal component analysis and linear discriminate techniques were applied on the data in order to differentiate the honeys. PCA explained more than 81% of the variance with the first two PC variables with minerals and antioxidant properties having highest discriminating power while LDA successfully classified all the unifloral honey samples.
The effect of autoclaving (120°C/30min), debranching (2% pullulanase/1h) and storage at 4°C (DS4) or 32°C (DS32) or 60°C (DS60) for 24h on starch fractions, functional, pasting, thermal and structural properties of sweet potato starch was investigated. Results showed that DS4 sample displayed the lower functional properties than other modified starches. Debranching showed a significant increase in the apparent amylose content of native starch from 18.56% to 25%. A higher yield of RS (28.76%) was observed in debranched starch stored at 4°C (DS4) due to the higher degree of retrogradation. All debranched starches showed a substantial decrease in pasting profile and higher gelatinization temperatures than in native starch. B+V X-ray diffraction pattern was observed in debranched starches with increased crystallinity value. The scanning electron micrographs of debranched starches showed rough plate-like surfaces with irregularly shaped structures were observed due to debranching and retrogradation during storage. The study concludes that a combination of autoclaving, debranching and subsequent storage at 4°C is best technique to produce a higher amount of resistant starch in the sweet potato starch.
Contributors:I. Fricke-Galindo, H. Jung-Cook, A. LLerena, M. López-López
Las reacciones adversas a medicamentos (RAM) son un problema de salud pública y una importante causa de morbimortalidad a nivel mundial. En el caso de los fármacos antiepilépticos (FAE), la presencia de RAM puede ser un impedimento para lograr el éxito terapéutico al dificultar la adherencia al tratamiento e impactar la calidad de vida del paciente. La farmacogenética busca la identificación de variantes genéticas asociadas a la seguridad de los fármacos. En este artículo se revisan los genes que codifican para enzimas metabolizadoras y transportadores de fármacos, así como en el sistema HLA asociados a RAM inducidas por FAE.