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SUNRISE partners have been very engaged and active introducing the initiative at the numerous conferences, workshops and meetings in which they have participated. To this end, a series of standard slides for presentations were created including this general presentation layout.
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Introduction RADO-SCS model is the first open source spinal cord model for simulating conventional/High Frequency Spinal Cord Stimulation, Dorsal Root Ganglion (DRG) Stimulation, and transpinal Direct Current Stimulation (tsDCS). The RADO-SCS model emerged over years. In our very first version of the SCS model, RADO-SCS 1.0, cylindrical shapes were used to represent the spinal tissues which later got upgraded with an extensive research and modeling works to RADO-SCS 2.0. This version included detailed spinal tissues anatomy but the spinal roots, rootlets, sympathetic chain, DRG, and vasculatures were not included in that model. RADO-SCS 3.0 captures the complex and sub-millimeter dimensions at high resolution (0.1 mm) with all the details that were not captured by previous model. This is an open-source SCS model developed from computer aided design (CAD) software (SolidWorks). In this version, we have included STL files of detailed spinal tissue anatomy and two types of clinical SCS leads (Boston Scientific and Nevro). The positioning of the SCS leads can be changed based on the intervention of clinical need. In the upcoming version we will be including DRG leads as well to allow users to use this model to simulate DRG stimulation.The .STL files can be imported into multi-physics software such as COMSOL, Mimics, Abaqus to computationally solve and predict the current flow. The predicted voltages can later be applied into the axon model to estimate the fiber activation threshold. This work has been conducted in collaboration with Scott Lempka's group to provide the SCS, DRG, and tsDCS field with a free state-of-the-art high resolution model for optimizing electrode/lead design and experimental protocol. Significance of the RADO-SCS model The RADO-SCS 3.0 can be used to simulate any SCS approach with both unprecedented resolution (precision) and transparency (reproducibility). Compared to prior models, RADO-SCS model meets or exceeds detail for every tissue compartment. The resulting electric fields in white and gray-matter, and axon model activation thresholds are broadly consistent with prior simulations. Freely available online, the RADO-SCS will be updated continuously with version control. How to reference our work: This open-source model is made available based on Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License. Please use the following citation when referring to our open-source model. Khadka, N., Liu, X., Zander, H., Swami, J., Rogers, E., Lempka, S.F., Bikson, M., 2019. Realistic Anatomically Detailed Open-Source Spinal Cord Stimulation (RADO-SCS) Model. bioRxiv 857946. https://doi.org/10.1101/857946 Getting started Before you download the RADO-SCS model for simulation, we suggest to read “forward modeling workflow for current flow models” which will provide detailed help with a general FEM modeling Pipeline using CAD-derived/MRI-derived models. The current flow modeling pipelines have been published many times in our prior publications (link here). When ready, you can download the latest version of the RADO-SCS model ( V 3.0) and use it for your exploratory clinical or academic research. Modeling Workflow 1. Download all STL files as they represent realistic and anatomically detailed T9-T11 level spinal tissues, vertebraes, IV discs, soft-tissues, vasculatures, and clinical leads (pre-positioned). If you don't need all the detailed tissues, you can remove them from your final model. 2. If you want to position the SCS leads in different location, import all STLs using CAD software like SolidWorks 2016 or later (recommended), Abacus, Mimics, etc., and re-position the leads. 3. Save you final model files and import them either in free or commercial meshing software. We recommend Simpleware or other powerful meshing software because the model has sub-millimeter resolution. 4. After the model is meshed, import the model into finite element method (FEM) or finite element analysis (FEA) current flow simulating software such as COMSOL, Abaqus, Mimics, etc. 5. If interested in fiber activation thresholds simulation, export the extracellular voltages calculated from the FEM model and couple it into the NEURON/ Matlab modeling platform. Notes and Disclaimers Version 3.0 is the most updated version of the RADO-SCS model. RADO-SCS does not include a pathological human spinal cord, but there are plans to incorporate this in future versions. This open-source model only includes CAD derived model files with pre-positioned SCS leads. However, the users can change the lead position using commercial or open-source CAD-software as their need. RADO-SCS is not a modeling open-source software. It is a CAD-derived model of realistic human spinal anatomy which can be downloaded and simulated for educational, clinical, or exploratory purposes. See the modeling pipeline on how to use the open-source RADO-SCS for numerical simulation. There is a plan to develop an open-source current flow modeling platform using the most-updated version of the RADO-SCS model in future.
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The article deals with physical education of young people in Russia in the context of negative trends in modern society. The multidimensional and multi-level study of the phenomenon of physical culture made it possible to generalize particular approaches to understanding the essence of physical culture on the basis of cultural and pedagogical methodology, to clarify the interaction of physical culture with other types of culture and determine its place in the system of cultural values of a person and society, to reveal the systemic nature and interrelation of its value-normative, institutional and activity aspects.
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This repository includes the Google Earth Engine (GEE) and R code associated to the following paper: Ceccherini G., G. Duveiller, G. Grassi, G. Lemoine, V. Avitabile, R. Pilli, A. Cescatti. Abrupt Increase in Forest Harvested Area over Europe After 2015 Description The code permits the full replication of the analyses in the paper, as well as the reproduction of the figures (including the supplementary ones). The GEE codes permit the creation of the input data, while analyses and map plotting are performed by the R scripts. Note that the input data are already available and the excecution of the GEE scripts is not necessary. In other words, the execution of the R scripts is enough for complete analysis replication.
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Contamination of water reservoirs with different toxic metal ions from industrial activities has emerged as one of major issues in recent years. The adsorption of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution onto Nano platelets kaolinite has been investigated. The adsorption studies were determined as a function of pH, contact time, initial metal ion concentration, adsorbent dosage and temperature. Nano platelets kaolinite prepared from raw Jordanian kaolin clay showed size in the range of 12-80 nm. Maximum adsorption capacity as determined by Langmuir isotherm model is 175.44 mg/g for Pb(II). Thermodynamic parameters, ∆Go, ∆Ho and ∆So were revealed that the adsorption process is spontaneous and endothermic process. The results showed that Nano platelets kaolinite can be efficiently used as a low-cost alternative and eco-friendly adsorbent for the removal of toxic heavy metals from wastewater.
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In this review paper synthesis of different classes of five/six membered heterocyclic cyanine dyes have been reviewed. In this paper review detailed synthesis steps were represented via equations. The synthesis covers, monomethine cyanine dyes (simple cyanine dyes), dimethine cyanine dyes, trimethine cyanine dyes (carbocyanine dyes), styryl cyanine dyes (hemicyanine dyes), aza-styryl cyanine dyes (aza-hemicyanine dyes and/or aza-cyanine dyes), merocyanine dyes (acyclic merocyanine dyes and cyclic merocyanine dyes) and apocyanine dyes. Besides, in the introduction section of this review paper some light is focused on the uses, applications and properties of cyanine dyes. This review paper is informative, useful and very readable for synthetic dye chemists, researchers and students who look for the different methods in the synthesis and preparation of various classes of five/six membered heterocyclic cyanine dyes with special emphasize in the field of heterocyclic and/or cyanine dyes chemistry. This specific type of collective review in the synthesis of different classes of only five/six membered heterocyclic cyanine dyes has been paid little attention and has great importance in the chemistry literature.
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Present study was designed to produce biodiesel using Cola lepidota seed oil in the presence of clay catalyst. The extraction was done in petroleum ether and oil was characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer (FTIR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques. The biodiesel produced, was characterized for specific gravity, kinematic viscosity, American petroleum index (API) gravity, flash point, cloud point, aniline point and diesel index. The result from FTIR shows that there was C-N stretching aliphatic amine at 1072.46 cm-1, CH2X alkyl halides at 1226.77 cm-1, C-C stretching (in ring) aromatics at 1442.80 cm-1, N-O asymmetric stretching nitro compounds at 1527.67cm-1, C=C stretching α, β unsaturated esters at 1712.85 cm-1, C-C stretching aromatics at 2924.18 cm-1, O-H stretch or free hydroxyl alcohols or phenols at 3610.86 cm-1. The oil yield was 1.76%. The result revealed that the biodiesel showed the following properties; specific gravity (0.862 g/cm3), viscosity (4.8mm2/sec), API (30.24 oC), flash point (80 oC), cloud point (-2 oC), aniline point (68 oC) and diesel index (1.424). These values were within the recommended limits of American Standard for Testing Material (ASTM D6751). This study reveals that C. lepidota oil is a veritable precursor for biodiesel production and other industrial applications.
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Five combustible mixtures of automotive gas oil and dual purpose kerosene were obtained from a retail outlet and blended into different automotive gas oil (AGO) and dual purpose kerosene (DPK) proportions (85:15, 75: 25, 50:50, 25:75 & 15:85% (v/v)). Samples were analyzed using densitometer, hydrometer, karl fischer titrator, pour and cloud point tester based on American Standard for Testing and Materials (ASTM) with the aim of delimiting the degree to which adulteration affects the quality of the pure sample, impact on the environment as well as the effects on compression ignition engines. Results obtained from the analyses of the blended ratios show the following parameters in the ranges; density (0.858–0.827g/cm3); specific gravity@60 0F (0.859–0.828), kinematic viscosity (4.800–1.200 cSt), cloud point (7.000–2.000 oC), pour point (-15.000 – < -34.000 oC) and moisture content (500.000–1200.000 ppm). Results of the analyses showed that 85 % dual purpose kerosene in the blended mixture fell below American Standard for testing and materials (ASTM) and Department for Petroleum Resources (DPR) acceptable standard in terms of viscosity. A maximum of 15% dual purpose kerosene in the blended mixture fell within ASTM specification in terms of moisture content. Specific gravity, density, cloud point and pour point of all the bended samples were within specification. Adulterating automotive gas oil with dual purpose kerosene at (≥ 15:85 %) AGO:DPK ratio as well as the use of biomass as an alternative source of energy due to diversion of dual purpose kerosene for adulteration, results in the release of various types of harmful poly aromatic hydrocarbons to the environment through the exhaust of diesel engines and cooking respectively. It can also lead to reduction in compression ratio, power loss as well as wear and tear of engine parts.
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This study investigated the nutraceutical potential of ripe and unripe plantain fruit peels which are commonly discarded as food wastes. Proximate and mineral analyses of the samples were performed as per the standard methods of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Preliminary phytochemical screening of aqueous, acetone and methanol extracts of the peels was also carried out in accordance to standard methods. From the results of the study, acetone extract of the unripe peel showed the presence of eight phytochemicals while its ripe peel showed the presence of four. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of both peels showed the presence of same phytochemicals i.e., terpenoids, cardiac glycosides, phenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, reducing sugars and saponins. Meanwhile, tannins was absent in all three solvent extracts of both peels. Fat, ash, crude fibre and carbohydrate contents of the unripe peel were higher than those of the ripe. However, moisture and protein contents of the ripe peel were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of the unripe. Of all the nine essential minerals assayed (K, Na, Mg, Ca, P, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu), concentrations of all except calcium were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the unripe peel than those of the ripe peel. Notably, none of the heavy metals (Co, Cr, Cd, Pb, Ni) assayed was detected in both samples. This study concludes that ripe and unripe plantain fruit peels could serve as promising sources of nutrients and bioactive compounds essential for the health of both livestock and humans.
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