The consequence of our meta-analysis shown that there was no significantly statistical difference in affecting total remission rate (RR: 1.02, 95% CI: 0.87 to 1.20, I2= 76%), levels of 24-hour urine protein excretion (24hUP) (MD: -0.50, 95% CI: -1.10 to 0.10, I2= 78%) and serum albumin (Alb) (MD: 0.45, 95% CI: -1.01 to 1.91, I2= 0%) between Astragalus membranaceus (AM) herbal formula and routine treatment (RT). However, AM herbal formula plus RT had more advantages in reducing total recurrence rate (RR = 0.33, 95% CI:0.18 to 0.61, I2= 0%), levels of 24hUP (MD: -0.77, 95% CI: -0.93 to -0.60, I2= 0%), total cholesterol (TC) (MD: -0.79, 95% CI: -1.09 to -0.48, I2= 45%), triglyceride (TG) (MD: -0.26, 95% CI: -0.39 to -0.14, I2= 52%) and increasing total remission rate (RR: 1.30, 95% CI: 1.16 to 1.46, I2= 0%) and Alb (MD: 1.87, 95% CI: 1.01 to 2.72, I2= 0%) levels than RT alone. In addition, when compared with RT alone, AM herbal formula used alone or plus RT had no significantly statistical difference in changing levels of serum creatinine (Scr) (MD: -1.05, 95% CI: -3.73 to 1.62, I2= 0%), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) (MD: -0.11, 95% CI: -0.34 to 0.12, I2= 0%), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (MD: 0.15, 95% CI: -0.73 to 1.04, I2= 0%), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (MD: -0.43, 95% CI: -1.39 to 0.54, I2= 9%) and fasting blood glucose (Glu) (MD: 0.00, 95% CI: -0.11 to 0.12, I2= 0%). Last but not least, AM herbal formula used alone or plus RT had a lower rate of total adverse events (RR: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.37 to 0.68, I2= 0%) than RT alone.
Contributors:Cinzia Calluso, Mauro Pettorruso, Annalisa Tosoni, Maria Luisa Carenti, Giovanni Martinotti, Massimo di Giannantonio, Giorgia Committeri
Gambling Disorder (GD) is a behavioral addiction characterized by the persistence of recurrent gambling behaviors despite serious adverse consequences. One of the key features of GD is a marked inability to delay gratification and an overall impairment of decision-making mechanisms. Indeed, in intertemporal choice (ITC) tasks, GDs usually display a marked tendency to prefer smaller-sooner over larger-later rewards (temporal discounting, TD). However, ITC represents a highly declarative measure, and as such might not be sensitive to implicit decision biases. Here we sought to uncover the implicit mechanisms underlying the ITC impairment in GDs by employing the process tracing method of mouse kinematics. To this aim, we collected and analyzed ITCs and kinematics measures from 24 PGs and 23 matched healthy control participants (HCs). In line with the relevant literature, the results showed that PGs discounted future rewards more steeply compared to HCs. Additionally, the results of kinematics analyses showed that PGs were characterized by a strong bias toward the immediate option, which was associated with straight-line trajectories. Conversely, the delayed option was selected with edge-curved trajectories, indicating a bias toward the immediate option which was revised in later stages of processing. Interestingly, kinematics indices were also found to be predictive of individual discounting preferences (i.e., discount rates) across the two groups. Taken together, these results suggest that kinematics indices, by revealing hidden and implicit patterns of attraction toward the unselected choice option, may represent reliable behavioral markers of TD in gambling disorder.
It involves raw data and preprocessed files used for statistical analysis and the training of computational models. Please see the readme.txt files under each folder to get further information about the files inside that folder.
This study aimed to investigate the associations between teachers’ flourishing at work, their perceived stress, their strategies to deal with stress, and their intention to leave their jobs. A convenience sample of teachers (n = 209) in South Africa participated in a survey. The Flourishing at Work Scale – Short Form, Perceived Stress Scale, Brief COPE Inventory, and Workplace Evaluation Questionnaire were administered.
This study aimed to investigate the relationships between job crafting, psychological need satisfaction/frustration, thriving, and job insecurity of academics in higher education institutions. A survey with a convenience sample of 276 academic staff at three higher education institutions in South Africa was used. The participants completed the Job Crafting Scale, Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction and Frustration Scale, High-Performance Human Resource Practices Questionnaire, and Thriving at Work Scale.