Adaptation to climate change depends to a significant extent on behavioural change in the form of individual adaptation action. We investigate the case of urban neighbourhood activation for the support of the elderly during the more likely occurring extreme heat waves generated by climate change. The proposed integrative theoretical consideration makes on the one hand reference to social dilemma theory and on the other to concepts from behavioural theory and social psychology. The case context is particularly challenging because it involves intra-individual dynamics of psychological processes, inter-individual dynamics of social influence and environmental dynamics governed by future climate scenarios. To account for the spatial and temporal dynamics of social mobilisation the proposed methodical approach is agent-based modelling. The presented social simulation experiments obtain their empirical grounding from a fine grained set of socio-geographic data for the target area which groups the population according to sociological lifestyles in a spatially explicit way. Simulation results show that social mobilisation of neighbourhood support can be substantially inhibited because passive habits establish quicker than prosocial behaviours which require successful social coordination prior to becoming habitual. In contrast, an alternative scenario simulation reveals that a time-limited intervention can provide an enlarged temporal window of opportunity for cooperative habits to stabilise and to persist after the end of the intervention.
Recent attempts to analyze human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-induced gene expression changes in astrocytes uncovered a multifunctional oncogene, astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1). Our previous studies revealed that AEG-1 regulates reactive astrocytes proliferation, migration and inflammation, hallmarks of aging and CNS injury. Moreover, the involvement of AEG-1 in neurodegenerative disorders, such as Huntington’s disease and migraine, and its induction in the aged brain suggest a plausible role in regulating overall CNS homeostasis and aging. Therefore, it is important to investigate AEG-1 specifically in aging-associated cognitive decline. In this study, we decipher the common mechanistic links in cancer, aging and HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders that likely contribute to AEG-1-based regulation of astrocyte responses and function. Despite AEG-1 incorporation into HIV-1 virions and its induction by HIV-1, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β, the specific role(s) of AEG-1 in astrocyte-driven HIV-1 neuropathogenesis are incompletely defined. We propose that AEG-1 plays a central role in a multitude of cellular stress responses involving mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and the nucleolus. It is thus important to further investigate AEG-1-based cellular and molecular regulation in order to successfully develop better therapeutic approaches that target AEG-1 to combat cancer, HIV-1 and aging.
Contributors:Shiang-Fen Huang, Chang-Phone Fung, Diahn-Warng Perng, Fu-Der Wang
Neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) including oseltamivir and peramivir are used for influenza treatment. A systemic corticosteroid is usually administrated for acute respiratory distress syndrome. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a systemic corticosteroid and its interaction with NAIs in patients with influenza infection and respiratory distress.
Contributors:Hui Gao, Chuanbin Zhou, Feng Li, Baolong Han, Xiuxia Li
Building toilets are critical infrastructure to promote public health. The current sanitation technology in developed countries is based on diluting human excreta with large volumes of centrally provided potable water. This approach is a poor use of water resources and is also inefficient and energy intensive, which is not suitable for water-shortage rural areas of northern China. Therefore, comprehensive schemes of Chinese rural toilets, including standard flushing, rainwater harvesting flushing systems, urine separation and composting systems, were considered in this study by means of five scenarios simulation. Economic net present value method was adopted for economic analysis and economic input–output life cycle assessment model based on Chinese economic input–output table and life cycle database was developed for comparing energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission implications, aiming to guide the selection of toilet schemes. A mountainous village in Mentougou District of Beijing was taken as the example. Based on total cost and net present value method, the results showed that scenario 5, namely urine diverting composting systems, outweighed the other four alternatives on the cost even in the different discount rates ranging from 0% to 10%; scenario 3, namely urine-diversion and potable water flushing toilet, was sub-optimal economic solution which net present value was negative when discount rate was over 8%. This study also present scenario 3's environmental superiority to scenario 5 on energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission. These two technologies were proved viable options for standard flushing toilet. Nevertheless, for another two scenarios of rainwater harvesting flushing toilets, they had higher amounts of investment, energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission due to the high investment on rainwater tank construction. Moreover, the vast majority of construction materials required high energy consumption and were carbon intensive sectors in China. Finally, some suggestions were given for the implementation of urine separation toilets and composting toilets in the practical application. Meanwhile, impact of the rising water price in selecting alternative technologies and tradeoff about the priority consideration for rural toilet technologies were analyzed in this study. Considering the great significance of rainwater harvesting toilet technology to save the water resources, measures of how much government should subsidize for guarantee its extension and motivation was discussed as well.
Contributors:Jay P. Devkota, Steven J. Burian, Hassan Tavakol-Davani, Defne S. Apul
Rainwater harvesting (RWH) is a decentralized approach to meet non-potable water supply needs and stormwater management goals. Life cycle environmental impacts of RWH systems have been reported in previous studies, but the effects of different building configurations and the type of sewer connections have not been fully studied. In this study, we aim to go beyond case studies by developing an approach that shows how RWH life cycle assessment (LCA) results change for different building roof areas, occupancies, and sewer connections. We propose and analyze the ratio of building occupancy to roof area which can be expressed as demand to supply (D/S) ratio to estimate life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of implementing RWH system when the harvested rainwater is used to flush the toilets. Result showed that for all the building roof area to occupancy configurations considered in this study, RWH systems had lower GHG emissions except in some separate sewer scenarios. Size of the cistern, water savings as well as life cycle GHG emissions varied as a function of D/S ratio. It was found that changing roof area and occupancy have different effects on cistern size, water savings and life cycle GHG emissions measured with respect to D/S ratio. Water savings and cistern size increased until D/S equaled 1 and remained constant for higher value when roof area was constant. The duo were constant until D/S ratio of 1 and decreased for higher D/S value. Though minimum life cycle GHG emissions were noticed for spacious building, the maximum savings in emissions were noted at D/S ratio equal to or more than 1 when the building footprint was kept constant when the building was connected to a combined sewer network. For occupancy constant case, maximum savings were reported at D/S equal to 1. Similarly when the building was connected to a separate sewer network, minimum emissions as well as maximum savings were reported at lowest possible D/S value when the building footprint was constant and at D/S less than or equal to 1 when the occupancy was kept constant. A recommendation framework was provided based on the results obtained to help designers and practitioners design the RWH system to minimize GHG emissions.
This paper argues the role of the University in the Smart City transformation strategy. The theoretical structure takes as reference the recent Complexity theory for city development and their application to the networks of the Connected city. The approach is based on a justified selection of Barcelona and its four universities. We carry out a deductive and interpretivist method interviewing 19 senior experts whole profiles represent the different forces of the Triple Helix model. Our results show the Barcelona city hall has the objective to implement five main innovative services which are fuelled by six main emerging technologies. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that the universities curriculum is not aligned with the city hall's objectives and a gap exists to prepare the undergraduates to the professions required for the Smart City. We recommend six propositions to reshape the University program curricula and leverage the application of Complexity theory to network. The originality of this study is to propose a 3-phases method along with a framework with pre-filled templates and protocols of interviews to analyze universities that pursue the objective to support Smart Cities implementation in a new context of science of cities.
Contributors:Gyri T. Haugland, Anne-Berit Olsen, Anita Rønneseth, Linda Andersen
Cleaner fish such as lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus L.) and ballan wrasse (Labrus bergylta A.) are increasingly used to delouse farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). In 2014, >20 million cleaner fish were placed into net-pens with farmed salmon in Norway. Amoebic gill disease (AGD), caused by the opportunistic, parasitic amoeba Paramoeba perurans, is emerging in salmon farming in Northern Europe. The amoeba displays low host specificity as it has been isolated from a range of fish species in addition to salmonids, such as wrasse and lumpfish cohabitating with farmed salmon. It is, however, not known to which degree lumpfish respond to P. perurans challenge, to which extent lumpfish may develop AGD, and if they can function as a vector for the spread of P. perurans to salmon. The present study shows that lumpfish can be infected with P. perurans under experimental conditions and develop AGD. However, lumpfish are more resistant and the development of pathology is slower compared to salmon. It is also shown that lumpfish can act as carriers and transmit parasitic amoebae to Atlantic salmon. Importantly, it is demonstrated that the gill lesion score system extensively used for evaluating AGD in Atlantic salmon is less suitable for lumpfish infected with P. perurans as the disease develops more slowly in lumpfish and because lumpfish may be non-symptomatic carriers.
Contributors:C. Carnero Pardo, S. López Alcalde, M. Espinosa García, I. Sánchez Magro
La escala Relevant Outcome Scale for Alzheimer's Disease (ROSA) es una herramienta útil para la evaluación y seguimiento de pacientes con demencia. Nuestro objetivo es evaluar la validez y fiabilidad de una versión española de la escala ROSA.
Obesity may influence postoperative rehabilitation outcomes after total knee replacement (TKR). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of body mass index (BMI) on the progression of inpatient rehabilitation using continuous passive motion (CPM) and its treatment outcomes.
Contributors:Justin K. Mogilski, Lisa L.M. Welling
Compared to motivations for cross-sex friendship, little research has examined motivations for friendship between ex-partners after romantic relationship dissolution (i.e., post-relationship friendship; PRF). In Study 1, participants (N=348) act nominated reasons for why someone might remain friends with an ex-partner. In Study 2, participants (N=513) rated the importance of staying friends with an ex-partner for each reason given in Study 1 and completed the PID-5-BF and HEXACO to measure domains of clinically relevant and non-pathological personality. Principle component analysis identified seven categories of reasons for staying friends. Reasons that indicated that an ex-partner is reliable, trustworthy, and of sentimental value (i.e., reliability/sentimentality) were given the highest importance ratings whereas reasons that indicated that continued friendship was practical (i.e., pragmatism) were given the lowest ratings. Men rated pragmatism and sexual access reasons as more important than women did. Furthermore, antagonism scores on the PID-5-BF, and the Honesty–Humility and extraversion scores on the HEXACO predicted importance ratings for pragmatism and sexual access. Our findings are consistent with previous research and suggest that PRF may provide opportunity for ex-partners to exchange desirable resources (e.g., love, status, information, money, sex) after romantic relationship dissolution.