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Alveolar macrophages (AMs) are lung resident phagocytes. They derive from fetal liver monocytes, which colonize the lung during embryonic development and give rise to fully mature AMs perinatally. We have identified TGF- signaling as an indispensible regulator during this process. To analyze the impact of TGF- on the entire transcriptome of AMs, we performed RNA-seq on AMs deficient of Tgfbr2 in CD11cCre/+ Tgfbr2fl/fl mice at P3 with Tgfbr2fl/fl littermates as a control.
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While the toxicity of the main constituents of electronic cigarette (ECIG) liquids, nicotine, propylene glycol (PG), and vegetable glycerin (VG), has been assessed individually in separate studies, limited data on the inhalation toxicity of them is available when in mixtures. In this 90-day subchronic inhalation study, Sprague-Dawley rats were nose-only exposed to filtered air, nebulized vehicle (saline), or three concentrations of PG/VG mixtures, with and without nicotine. Standard toxicological endpoints were complemented by molecular analyses using transcriptomics, proteomics, and lipidomics. Compared with vehicle exposure, the PG/VG aerosols showed only very limited biological effects with no signs of toxicity. Addition of nicotine to the PG/VG aerosols resulted in effects in line with nicotine effects observed in previous studies, including up-regulation of xenobiotic enzymes (Cyp1a1/Fmo3) in the lung and metabolic effects, such as reduced serum lipid concentrations and expression changes of hepatic metabolic enzymes. No toxicologically relevant effects of PG/VG aerosols (up to 1.520mg PG/L + 1.890mg VG/L) were observed, and no adverse effects for PG/VG/nicotine were observed up to 438/544/6.7mg/kg/day. This study demonstrates how complementary systems toxicology analyses can reveal, even in the absence of observable adverse effects, subtoxic and adaptive responses to pharmacologically active compounds such as nicotine.
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The main constituents of electronic cigarette liquids are nicotine, propylene glycol (PG), and vegetable glycerin (VG), together with distilled water and flavors. To assess the toxicity of PG/VG mixtures with and without nicotine as basic components of liquids used in e-cigarettes, a 90-day rat inhalation study according to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development test guideline 413 was conducted. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were nose-only exposed, 6?h/day, 5 days/week to filtered air, or nebulized vehicle (saline), or three concentrations of PG/VG (0.174 mg PG/l + 0.210 mg VG/l; 0.520 mg PG/l + 0.630 mg VG/l; 1.520 mg PG/l + 1.890 mg VG/l) � with (test item) and without (reference item) 23 �g nicotine/L. Standard toxicological endpoints were complemented by molecular analyses using transcriptomics, proteomics, and lipidomics. Compared to vehicle exposure, the tested PG/VG aerosols showed only very limited biological effects with no signs of toxicity, both for the standard toxicological endpoints (e.g., histopathology, clinical chemistry) and the systems toxicological analyses (transcriptomics, proteomics, and lipidomics). The addition of nicotine to the PG/VG aerosols (23 �g/l) resulted in effects in line with nicotine effects in previous studies. These included up-regulation of xenobiotic enzymes (Cyp1a1 and Fmo3) in the lung and metabolic effects, e.g., reduction in serum lipid concentrations and changes in the expression of metabolic enzymes in the liver. Signs of a generalized stress response to nicotine exposure such as decreased thymus weights were observed; and likely, a subset of the observed metabolic alterations was interlinked with this generalized stress response. Under the conditions of this 90-day SD rat inhalation study, no toxicologically relevant effects of PG/VG aerosols (up to 1.520 mg PG/l + 1.890 mg VG/l) were observed, and the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for PG/VG/nicotine was determined to be 438/544/6.7 mg/kg/day. Further the study demonstrated how complementary systems toxicology analyses can reveal, also in the absence of observable adverse effects, subtoxic and adaptive responses to pharmacologically active compounds such as nicotine.
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The main constituents of electronic cigarette liquids are nicotine, propylene glycol (PG), and vegetable glycerin (VG), together with distilled water and flavors. To assess the toxicity of PG/VG mixtures with and without nicotine as basic components of liquids used in e-cigarettes, a 90-day rat inhalation study according to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development test guideline 413 was conducted. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were nose-only exposed, 6?h/day, 5 days/week to filtered air, or nebulized vehicle (saline), or three concentrations of PG/VG (0.174 mg PG/l + 0.210 mg VG/l; 0.520 mg PG/l + 0.630 mg VG/l; 1.520 mg PG/l + 1.890 mg VG/l) � with (test item) and without (reference item) 23 �g nicotine/L. Standard toxicological endpoints were complemented by molecular analyses using transcriptomics, proteomics, and lipidomics. Compared to vehicle exposure, the tested PG/VG aerosols showed only very limited biological effects with no signs of toxicity, both for the standard toxicological endpoints (e.g., histopathology, clinical chemistry) and the systems toxicological analyses (transcriptomics, proteomics, and lipidomics). The addition of nicotine to the PG/VG aerosols (23 �g/l) resulted in effects in line with nicotine effects in previous studies. These included up-regulation of xenobiotic enzymes (Cyp1a1 and Fmo3) in the lung and metabolic effects, e.g., reduction in serum lipid concentrations and changes in the expression of metabolic enzymes in the liver. Signs of a generalized stress response to nicotine exposure such as decreased thymus weights were observed; and likely, a subset of the observed metabolic alterations was interlinked with this generalized stress response. Under the conditions of this 90-day SD rat inhalation study, no toxicologically relevant effects of PG/VG aerosols (up to 1.520 mg PG/l + 1.890 mg VG/l) were observed, and the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for PG/VG/nicotine was determined to be 438/544/6.7 mg/kg/day. Further the study demonstrated how complementary systems toxicology analyses can reveal, also in the absence of observable adverse effects, subtoxic and adaptive responses to pharmacologically active compounds such as nicotine.
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The molecular mechanisms by which individuals subjected to environmental heat stress either adapt or develop heat-related complications are not well understood. We analysed the changes in blood mononuclear gene expression patterns in human volunteers exposed to an extreme heat in a sauna (temperature of 78 ± 6 °C).
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DNA methylation of gene promoter regions represses transcription and is a mechanism via which environmental risk factors could affect cells during development in individuals at risk for schizophrenia. We investigated DNA methylation in patient-derived cells that might shed light on early development in schizophrenia. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) may reflect a “ground state” upon which developmental and environmental influences would be minimal. Olfactory neurosphere-derived cells (ONS cells) are an adult-derived neuro-ectodermal stem cell modified by developmental and environmental influences. Fibroblasts provide a non-neural control for life-long developmental and environmental influences. Genome-wide profiling of DNA methylation and gene expression was done in these three cell types from the same individuals. All cell types had distinct, statistically significant schizophrenia-associated differences in DNA methylation and linked gene expression, with Gene Ontology analysis showing that the differentially affected genes clustered in networks associated with cell growth, proliferation and movement, functions known to be affected in schizophrenia patient-derived cells. Only 5 gene loci were differentially methylated in all three cell types. These findings suggest that schizophrenia-associated DNA methylation may be a response to the homeostatic demands of different cell types in their local environments. Understanding the role of epigenetics in cell function in the brain in schizophrenia is likely to be complicated by similar cell type differences in intrinsic and environmentally-induced epigenetic regulation. This dataset represents the gene expression part of the study. The DNA methylation data is deposited under accession E-MTAB-2154.
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HCC70 xenografts treated with 11 doses of AZD8186 (100mg/kg BID) were compared to DMSO-treated control xenografts
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Heads and trunk tissues were isolated from zebrafish embryos either wildtype or deficient for b3glct to identify differentially regulated genes which may explain lack of phenotype. Heads and trunks were dissected, solublized in trizol and purified RNA was sent to OakLabs for transcriptional profiling. The expression of mutant to normal tissues was compared to identify differentially regulated genes shared by both head and trunk tissue in mutant embryos.
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The study aims to show that Sox9+ Chd1+ mouse embryonic lung progenitors can be isolated and expanded long-term in 3D culture while maintaining their multipotency. in vitro cultured Sox9+ Chd1+ lung progenitors transcriptionally resemble their in vivo counterparts and show significant difference from adult lung epithelial (Cdh1+ and EpCAM+) and non-epithelial (Cdh1- and EpCAM-) cells
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Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) belongs to the family Birnaviridae and is economically important to the poultry industry worldwide. IBDV infects B cells in the bursa of Fabricius (BF), which can cause severe immunosuppression and mortality in young chickens. Earlier studies have shown that strains of IBDV lose their virulence potential after serial passage in non-B lymphoid cells, for reasons that are poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the gene expression profiles of one cell-culture adapted attenuated IBDV strain (D78) and one very virulent IBDV strain (UK661) in chicken primary B cells cultured ex vivo from the bursa of Fabricius. The viruses were studied in B cells over 48h and their gene expression was initially evaluated with qPCR. The mRNA was isolated from the cells at 18 hours post-infection and screened with Affymetrix microarrays in triplicate. The study included mock controls which were conducted in triplicate.
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