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A total of 100 mesozooplankton samples collected with NORPAC nets from a 0 to 150-m depth at latitudinal stations (35–44°N) along 155°E each May from 2002 through 2011 were analyzed. The mesozooplankton abundance at each station varied from 39 to 1106ind.m−3. The mesozooplankton biomass was consistently higher (80–100mgDMm−3) in the transition domain (40–42°N) than the biomass in the other domains. An empirical metabolic rate-based carbon budget model indicated that production of mesozooplankton suspension feeders was highest (120–175mgCm−2d−1) in the transition domain. A comparison between the production of the mesozooplankton suspension feeders and the food requirement of mesozooplankton carnivores indicated that the latter was well fulfilled by the former in the subarctic and transition domains. However, the food requirement of the mesozooplankton carnivores was near equal to or exceeded the production of mesozooplankton suspension feeders in the subtropical domain. As an annual event, the feeding migration of epipelagic fish to the transition and subarctic domains in summer may be interpreted by their utilization of the excess secondary production (production of mesozooplankton suspension feeders).
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The synthesis of a series of vanadium, chromium, and manganese PNP complexes of the types [M(PNP)Cl3] (M=V, Cr) and [M(PNP)Cl2] (M=Cr, Mn) is reported. Vanadium and manganese PNP pincer complexes are described for the first time. All complexes are characterized by their magnetic moments, elemental analysis, and ESI MS. In addition, some compounds are characterized by X-ray crystallography. In a preliminary study, these complexes catalyze the oxidative homo-coupling of aryl Grignard reagents in the presence of MeI as oxidizing agents to give symmetrical biaryls, but are inactive in Kumada cross-coupling reactions. The reactivity of V(III), Cr(III), Cr(II) and Mn(II) is compared with related Fe(II) and Co(II) complexes of the types [Fe(PNP-iPr)Cl2], and [Co(PNP-iPr)Cl2]. In all cases, good to excellent isolated yields are obtained. However, since the respective metal chlorides in the absence of PNP ligands exhibited comparable reactivities, the new PNP complexes offer no real advantage for this type of coupling reactions.
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The purpose of the present study was to investigate the DNA-binding properties of mononuclear ruthenium(II) complex [Ru(tBu2bpy)2(dpp)]2+ and heterodinuclear ruthenium(II)–platinum(II) complexes [Ru(tBu2bpy)2(μ-dpp)PtX2]2+ (X=Cl (1), Br (2), I (3)) and [Ru(bpy)2(μ-dpp)PtCl2]2+ (4). We presented the interaction study of the complexes with CT-DNA and the DNA photocleavage properties using pBR322 supercoiled plasmid DNA when irradiated with visible light and their cytotoxicity against HeLa cervical cancer cell line. All the complexes were cleavage inactive in the dark, while the photoinduced DNA cleavages were observed for these complexes. It appeared that the DNA photocleavage for [Ru(tBu2bpy)2(dpp)]2+ proceeded via a singlet oxygen pathway, whereas complexes 1–3 proceeded via a photoredox pathway. [Ru(tBu2bpy)2(dpp)]2+, 2, and 3 in the light displayed favorable cytotoxicity, which were in all cases similar to cisplatin. 2 (IC50=9.1μM) which was less toxic than [Ru(tBu2bpy)2(dpp)]2+ (IC50=5.6μM) produced the largest PI (>22), indicating a highly effective photocytotoxic agent. The order of cytotoxicity of 1–4 in the light may be due to the lipophilicity (2>3>1≫4).
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A terpyridyl-imidazole based heteroditopic Ru(II) complex of composition [(phen)2Ru(tpy-Hbzim-dipy)](ClO4)2] (1), where tpy-Hbzim-dipy=4′-[4-(4,5-Di-pyridin-2-yl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-phenyl]-[2,2′;6′,2″] terpyridine and phen=1,10-phenanthroline is designed and structurally characterized in this work for the construction of multifunctional Boolean and Fuzzy logic devices. The designed complex acts as a red-color emitter and has a free terpyridine moiety which can be coordinated to a cationic guest and an imidazole motif capable of interacting with selective anionic guests through hydrogen bonding. Consequently, modulation of physicochemical properties of the complex by the anionic and cationic guests was examined through different optical channels. The metalloreceptor acts as a chromogenic sensor for F−, AcO−, CN−, and H2PO4− among the anions, while for Fe2+ among bivalent 3d cations in acetonitrile. Based on various output signals with a particular set of anionic and cationic inputs, the complex mimics the functions of four-inputs NOR logic gate and complicated function of memory device. More importantly, we also report the implementation of Fuzzy logic approach to develop an infinite-valued logic system based on either the absorbance or luminescence dependence of the complex upon concentration of different ionic inputs. In conjunction with the experimental investigation, density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) studies were also carried out to investigate the structural and electronic properties of the receptor.
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Multiple applications of metal oxide nanoparticles (MONPs) could result in their accumulation in soil, threatening higher terrestrial plants. Several reports have shown the effects of MONPs on plants. In this review, we analyze the most recent reports about the physiological and biochemical responses of plants to stress imposed by MONPs. Findings demonstrate that MONPs may be taken up and accumulated in plant tissues causing adverse or beneficial effects on seed germination, seedling elongation, photosynthesis, antioxidative stress response, agronomic, and yield characteristics. Given the importance of determining the potential risks of MONPs on crops and other terrestrial higher plants, research questions about field long-term conditions, transgenernational phytotoxicity, genotype specific sensitivity, and combined pollution problems should be considered.
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Cenozoic conglomerates are exposed discontinuously along the length of the Yarlung Tsangpo suture zone on the southern margin of the Gangdese arc. These conglomerates (the “Gangdese Conglomerates” herein) record a crucial stage in the uplift and erosion histories of the southern Tibet after the initial India–Asia collision. In the Mt. Kailas area, the Gangdese Conglomerates strata consist of multiple sedimentary cycles and each cycle is a fining-upward sequence that was deposited by alluvial fan, braided-river and delta systems. Whereas in the Xigaze area, the Gangdese Conglomerates strata comprise a coarsening-upward sequence that was deposited by delta, braided-river and alluvial fan systems. Based on the detrital and igneous zircon U–Pb ages, the depositional ages of the Gangdese Conglomerates are late Oligocene to early Pliocene (ca. 26–5Ma) in the Mt. Kailas area, late Oligocene to middle Miocene (ca. 26–15Ma) in the Xigaze area, and late Oligocene to early Miocene (ca. 26–19Ma) in the Zedong area. Paleocurrent measurements and provenance data (i.e., conglomerate clast composition, sandstone petrology and detrital zircon age) indicate that the initial detritus of the Gangdese Conglomerates were entirely derived from the north (mainly from the Gangdese arc). Sediment resulting from denudation to the south (the Xigaze forearc basin, the Yarlung Tsangpo suture zone and the northern margin of the Indian plate) first appeared by the early Miocene (ca. 19Ma) and subsequently increased in abundance gradually. Our new results, together with previous data from the Xigaze area, reveal 3 major stages in the evolution of the Yarlung Tsangpo River system: (1) the southward-flowing stage (ca. 26–19Ma) featured southward-draining transverse rivers that transported materials from the Gangdese arc southward. Southward paleocurrents in the Gangdese Conglomerates indicate a northern source. (2) The westward-flowing stage (ca. 19–15Ma) developed due to the uplift of the suture zone and Tethys Himalaya to the south. Northward-draining rivers began to develop, and lakes resembling a string of beads formed and finally connected together, initiating the westward-flowing paleo-Yarlung Tsangpo River. Westward paleoflows were recorded in the Gangdese Conglomerates. (3) The eastward-flowing stage (ca. 15Ma–present) resulted from differential uplift and denudation of the southern Tibet, which reversed the direction of the young Yarlung Tsangpo River by ca. 15Ma. The deposition of the Gangdese Conglomerates was controlled by eastward paleoflows. At this point, the modern eastward-flowing Yarlung Tsangpo River system was established.
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This paper describes program betaFIT, which performs least-squares fits of sets of one-dimensional (or radial) potential function values to four different types of sophisticated analytic potential energy functional forms. These families of potential energy functions are: the Expanded Morse Oscillator (EMO) potential [J Mol Spectrosc 1999;194:197], the Morse/Long-Range (MLR) potential [Mol Phys 2007;105:663], the Double Exponential/Long-Range (DELR) potential [J Chem Phys 2003;119:7398], and the “Generalized Potential Energy Function (GPEF)” form introduced by Šurkus et al. [Chem Phys Lett 1984;105:291], which includes a wide variety of polynomial potentials, such as the Dunham [Phys Rev 1932;41:713], Simons–Parr–Finlan [J Chem Phys 1973;59:3229], and Ogilvie–Tipping [Proc R Soc A 1991;378:287] polynomials, as special cases. This code will be useful for providing the realistic sets of potential function shape parameters that are required to initiate direct fits of selected analytic potential functions to experimental data, and for providing better analytical representations of sets of ab initio results.
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This paper describes computer program RKR1, which implements the first-order semiclassical Rydberg–Klein–Rees procedure for determining the potential energy function for a diatomic molecule from a knowledge of the dependence of the molecular vibrational energies Gv and inertial rotation constants Bv on the vibrational quantum number v. RKR1 allows the vibrational energies and rotational constants to be defined in terms of: (i) conventional Dunham polynomial expansions, (ii) near-dissociation expansions (NDE׳s), or (iii) the mixed Dunham/NDE “MXR” functions introduced by Tellinghuisen [J Chem Phys 2003; 118: 3532]. Internal convergence tests ascertain and report on the precision of the resulting turning points. For cases in which only vibrational data are available, RKR1 also allows an overall potential to be constructed by combining directly-calculated well widths with inner turning points generated from a Morse function. It can also automatically smooth over irregular or unphysical behavior of the steep inner wall of the potential.
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Sarcopenia, the age-related decrease in muscle mass, strength, and function, is a main cause of reduced mobility, increased falls, fractures and nursing home admissions. Cross-sectional and prospective studies indicate that sarcopenia may be influenced in part by reversible factors like nutritional intake. The aim of this study was to compare functional and nutritional status, body composition, and quality of life of older adults between age and sex-matched older adults with and without sarcopenia.
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Ruthenium(II) complexes (1–6) supported by a series of 2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinoline-3-carbaldehyde substituted thiosemicarbazone ligands [2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinoline-3-carbaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (L1), 2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinoline-3-carbaldehyde N-methyl thiosemicarbazone (L2), 2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinoline-3-carbaldehyde N-phenylthiosemicarbazone (L3)] have been synthesized and structurally characterized by analytical, spectroscopic methods and X-ray crystallographic technique. The studies revealed that the ligands act as mononegative tridentate in ruthenium(II) complexes and a distorted octahedral geometry has been proposed for the complexes. In addition, the complexes have been found to catalyze the amidation of alcohols with amines in the presence of KtBuO–toluene system. The catalyst 3 displayed higher activity in substrates, including phenyl-, pyridine-, furan-, and thiophene-substituted alcohols with primary and secondary amines. The protocol is highly attractive because of easily available starting materials, high atom efficiency and environmental friendliness.
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