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Quadrature local **oscillators**... Circuit schematic of injection locked **frequency** dividers (ILFDs).
... Comparison of ILQVCO performance against published quadrature **oscillators**
... Measured phase noise at double **frequency** VCO and ILFDs outputs.
... Magnitude and phase of two LC tanks with a mismatch Δω between their resonant **frequencies**.
... Block diagram of an injection locked **oscillator**.
... **Frequency** dividers

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(A) The reduction in the **frequency** of the **oscillations** as a function of thiopental concentration. (B) The reduction in the **frequency** of the **oscillations** as a function of propofol concentration. (C) The reduction in the **frequency** of the **oscillations** as a function of ketamine concentration. Each point represents the mean of data from an average of 6 slices and the error bars are standard errors. The lines are least squares regressions. The data have been normalised such that the control **frequency** in the absence of anaesthetic is unity. The **frequency** (mean ± s.e.m) of the control response was 36.0 ± 0.1 Hz (n = 11) for the thiopental data, 38.0 ± 0.7 Hz (n = 21) for the propofol data and 33.8 ± 0.7 Hz (n = 38) for the ketamine data.
... 40 Hz **oscillations**... The effect of the optical isomers of etomidate on the **oscillations**. Each point represents the mean of data from an average of 5 slices and the error bars are standard errors. The inactive S(−)-enantiomer had no significant effect on the **oscillation** **frequency** at concentrations up to 2.5 μM. The lines have been drawn by eye and have no theoretical significance. The data have been normalised such that the control **frequency** in the absence of anaesthetic is unity. The **frequency** (mean ± s.e.m) of the control response was 38.9 ± 0.6 Hz (n = 54).
... (A) Representative traces from the same brain slice showing control **oscillations** (upper trace), **oscillations** in the presence of 1.4 vol% isoflurane (middle trace) and **oscillations** after washout of isoflurane (lower trace). (B) Power spectra of data from the same slice as in (A) showing the reduction in **frequency** in the presence of 1.4 vol% isoflurane.
... (A) Representative traces from the same brain slice showing control **oscillations** at 26 and 30 °C. (B) Power spectra of data from the same slice as in (A) showing the reduction in **oscillation** **frequency** at 26 °C compared to 30 °C. (C) Plot of **oscillation** **frequency** as a function of temperature. The line is a least squares regression. The data were recorded from 4 slices.
... Percentage change in carbachol-evoked gamma **oscillation** **frequency** and prolongation of IPSC time-course at clinical concentrations of anaesthetic

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Generic level schemes of atoms for optical **qubits** (left) and radio-**frequency** **qubits** (right). In addition to the two **qubit** levels {|0〉,|1〉} usually a third rapidly decaying level is used for laser cooling and state read-out. While the optical **qubit** is typically manipulated on a quadrupole transition, radio-**frequency** **qubit** levels are connected with Raman-transitions.
... Rabi **oscillations** of a single Ca+ ion. Each dot represents 1000 experiments, each consisting of initialization, application of laser light on the **qubit** transition and state detection.
... Normal modes of a three-ion crystal along the axial direction with motional **frequencies** ωi.
... Energy level scheme of a single trapped ion with a ground (|g〉) and an excited (|e〉) level in a harmonic trap (**oscillator** states are labeled |0〉,|1〉,|2〉,…). Ω denotes the carrier Rabi **frequency**. The Rabi **frequency** on the blue sideband transition |0,e〉↔|1,g〉 transition is reduced by the Lamb-Dicke factor η as compared to the carrier transition (see Eq. (5)). The symbols ωqubit and ωt denote the **qubit** and the trap **frequency**, respectively.
... Rabi **oscillation** on the blue sideband of the center-of-mass mode. The data were taken on a string of two 40Ca+ ions whose center-of-mass mode was cooled to the ground state. Only one of the ions was addressed. The population **oscillates** between the |S,0〉 and the |D,1〉 state of the addressed ion.

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Radius and mean surface density for spherical fullerenes and the corresponding CNT radius for stable **oscillations** [33,34].
... **Oscillation** **frequency** of C60-nanotube **oscillator** versus half length of nanotube.
... **Oscillation** **frequency**... **Oscillation** **frequency** against the initial velocity of fullerene (L=70Å).
... **Oscillation** **frequency** against the initial velocity of fullerene (RF=3.55Å).
... Variation of **frequency** with the difference between the amplitude and half length of nanotube (L=70Å).

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Entrainment of spontaneous **oscillation** by an external stimulus. (A) Sinusoidal forces were applied to a spontaneously **oscillating** hair cell bundle for three different stimulation conditions: one at the **frequency** of the spontaneous **oscillations** (FO=4kHz) and two for slightly lower **frequency** (3.5kHz). Thick lines are bundle tip displacements and thin red lines are external stimuli. Initial states of the bundle for the three simulations were the same and selected to have the opposite phase to the stimulus. (B) Bundle displacement in response to the three different stimuli in (A) averaged over 160 presentations (top two records) and 80 presentations (bottom record). Note that the response at FO (4kHz, top) builds up with a time constant of 0.7ms, indicative of a sharply tuned resonator. The bundle entrained poorly to the 3.5kHz stimulus at low level (middle), but at the higher level the force was sufficient to suppress the spontaneous movement and the bundle movement was entrained to the external stimulus. (C) A single cycle of bundle displacement (red line) averaged over 200ms of response compared to the force stimulus (black line), which was scaled for comparison with displacements. The bundle compliance obtained by dividing the displacement amplitude by the force amplitude is given beside each trace. (D) PSD plots for each response showing a sharply tuned response at FO (top). At 3.5kHz, the spectral density contains **frequency** components (both the spontaneous **oscillation** and the stimulus; middle). For the larger stimulus level at 3.5kHz, the spectral density is now dominated by the stimulus **frequency**.
... Effects of Ca2+ on the spontaneous **oscillation**. Different levels of the calcium concentration at the fast adaptation site were simulated. The bundle **oscillated** when the Ca2+ concentration at the fast adaptation site was between 12 and 30μM. Other parameters were identical to those given in Table 1. The hair bundle **oscillated** most strongly at 4kHz with Ca2+ of 20μM. The **oscillation** **frequency** increased from 3kHz to 4.5kHz as the Ca2+ concentration increased from 12 to 30μM. Note the “twitch-like” behavior at low Ca2+.
... Compressive nonlinearity demonstrated by entrainment to an external stimulus. The hair cell bundle was stimulated with sinusoidal forces with different **frequencies** (1–16kHz) and magnitudes (0.1–1000 pN). (A) Representative examples of average bundle tip displacements (solid lines) and force stimuli (broken lines) scaled for comparison with displacements for one stimulus cycle. Displacements were averaged cycle by cycle over 200ms of response. (B) Bundle displacement plotted against stimulation **frequency** for three different force magnitudes. Note the sharp tuning for small 1 pN stimuli and the broad tuning for the largest 100 pN stimuli. (C) Bundle displacement plotted against force magnitude at the **frequency** of the spontaneous **oscillations**, FO=4kHz. Note that the relationship displays a compressive nonlinearity for intermediate stimulus levels, is linear at low stimulus levels, and again approaches linearity (denoted by dashed line) at the highest levels. (D) Gain plotted against stimulation **frequency** for three different force magnitudes. Gain is defined as the ratio of the compliance under the stimulus conditions to the passive compliance with the MT channel blocked. (E) Gain plotted against force magnitude at the **frequency** of the spontaneous **oscillations**, FO=4kHz. The gain declines from a maximum of 50 at the lowest levels, approaching 1 (passive) at the highest levels.
... Determinant of **frequency**: KD, Ca2+ dissociation constant. (A) The hair bundle morphology of a rat high-**frequency** hair cell was used to create a new FE model. The hair bundle had more stereocilia of smaller maximum height, (2.4μm compared to 4.2μm) than the low-**frequency** bundle. (B) Spontaneous **oscillations** of bundle position and open probability. (C) PSD plots indicating sharply tuned **oscillations** at 23kHz. For these simulations, KD and CFA, the Ca2+ concentration near the open channel, were elevated five times. Other values as in Table 1 except: fCa=8 pN and f0, the intrinsic force difference between open and closed states=−15 pN.
... Effects of loading the hair bundle with a tectorial membrane mass. (A) Passive resonance of a low-**frequency** (solid circles) and a high-**frequency** (open circles) hair bundle in the absence of the tectorial membrane mass with MT channels blocked. The system behaves as a low-pass filter with corner **frequency** of 23kHz (solid circles) and 88kHz (open circles). The hair bundle was driven with a sinusoidal force stimulus of 100 pN amplitude at different **frequencies**. (B) Passive behavior of the same two hair bundles surmounted by a block of tectorial membrane. The block of tectorial membrane had a mass of 6.2×10−12 kg for the low-**frequency** location, which was decreased fourfold for the high-**frequency** location. The MT channels were blocked, so the system was not spontaneously active. Resonant **frequencies**: 5.1kHz (solid circles) and 21kHz (open circles). (C). The active hair bundles, incorporating MT channel gating, combined with the tectorial membrane mass generated narrow-band spontaneous **oscillations**. PSD function is plotted against **frequency**, giving FO=2.9kHz, Q=40 for the low-**frequency** location, and FO=14kHz, Q =110 for the high-**frequency** location.

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Amplitude spectra of our entire data sets for HD 101065 acquired on HJD 2456460 – 6462. Panel (a) clearly shows the principal **frequency** of **oscillation** ν1=1.372867 mHz, and the secondary **frequency** ν2=0.954261 mHz. On pre-whitening ν1, we are left with ν2 in panel (b). Panel (c) gives the residuals after pre-whitening ν2. There is still evidence of further **frequencies** although below the detection criterion.
... Amplitude spectra of HD 101065 data acquired on HJD 2456460 – 6462. Panel (a) clearly shows the principal **frequency** of **oscillation** ν1=1.372867 mHz, and the secondary **frequency** ν2=0.954261 mHz. On pre-whitening ν1, we are left with ν2 in panel (b). Again, on pre-whitening ν2, we are left with low **frequency** residuals peaks in panel (c) which still suggests possible presence of further **oscillation** **frequencies**.
... The Non-linear least-square fit for the principal **frequency** ν1=1.372865 mHz. The JohnsonB amplitude of **oscillation** from year 1978 – 1988 were adopted from Martinez and Kurtz (1990), while that of year 2013 represent the amplitude and phase of **oscillation** secured from our combined data set (HJD 2456404 – 6462). Apart from year 2013 observation which has been analysed using 40-s integrations, 80-s integrations were used in all earlier observations adopted from Martinez and Kurtz (1990)).
... Stars: **oscillations**... The corresponding nightly amplitude spectra of HD 101065 on HJD 2456404 – 6462. Note the presence of resolved secondary **frequencies** ν2 in each panel around the region of 1 mHz. The known principal **oscillation** **frequency** ν1 is also present in all the panels, while 2ν1 which is the harmonic of ν1 appears marginally in panel (b) only.
... Non-linear least-square fit for the **frequencies** secured from our combined data set (HJD 2456404 – 6462).

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(a) Time-averaged drag coefficients, (b) r.m.s. of drag coefficients, and (c) r.m.s. of lift coefficients as a function of **frequency** ratio and distance between two cylinders.
... Instantaneous vorticity contours of two **oscillating** cylinders at Re=160, go=2, Ae=0.2, and fe/fo**=1.0. (a) present result, (b) results from Mahir and Rockwell (1996).
... Peak values of Fourier transforms of lift coefficients of two **oscillating** cylinders
... Drag and lift coefficients as a function of time for one **oscillating**.
... Wake patterns of two **oscillating** cylinders
... Forced **oscillation**

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The relation between seizure **frequency** per month and number of channels with (A) ripples (>1/min), (B) fast ripples (>1/min), and (C) more than 20 fast ripples per minute. There were no patients with 0 channels with ripples (>1/min; A), but there were patients with 0 channels with fast ripples (>1 or >20/min; B and C). The seizure **frequency** was shown on a logarithmic scale, because of the distribution. As indicated in the text, there was no correlation between seizure **frequency** per month and the number of channels with more than 1 ripple or fast ripple per minute, but there was a positive correlation between seizure **frequency** and more than 20 fast ripples per minute.
... This table shows the correlation coefficients Rho for different alternative comparisons: seizure **frequency** (seizures/month) compared to the number and percentage of channels with ripples, fast ripples, spikes and ripples and fast ripples without spikes (first two lines), seizure **frequency** compared to number of channels with higher rates of ripples and fast ripples (>5, >10 and >20, lines 3–5) and number of seizure-days/month compared to channels with ripples and fast ripples. All comparisons were done for all patients, all patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and all patients with unilateral mesiotemporal seizure onset.

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(Color online) Same as in Fig. 6 (i.e. LZS interferometry with low-**frequency** driving), but including the effects of decoherence. The time averaged upper level occupation probability P+¯ was obtained numerically from the Bloch equations with the Hamiltonian (1). The dephasing time T2 is given by ωT2/(2π)=0.1 in (a), 1 in (b), 5 in (c) and T2=2T1 in (d). The relaxation time is given by ωT1/(2π)=10.
... (Color online) Same as in Fig. 7 (i.e. LZS interferometry with high-**frequency** driving), but including the effects of decoherence. The time-averaged upper diabatic state occupation probability P¯up is obtained numerically by solving the Bloch equations with the Hamiltonian (1). The dephasing time T2 is given by ωT2/(2π)=0.1 in (a), 0.5 in (b), 1 in (c) and T2=2T1 in (d). The relaxation time is given by ωT1/(2π)=103.
... Superconducting **qubits**... Stückelberg **oscillations**... (Color online) (a) Energy levels E versus the bias ε. The two solid curves (red and blue) represent the adiabatic energy levels, E±, which display avoided crossing with energy splitting Δ. The dashed lines show the crossing diabatic energy levels E↑,↓, corresponding to the diabatic states φ↑ and φ↓. (b) The bias ε represents the driving signal, and it **oscillates** between εmin=ε0−A and εmax=ε0+A with a sinusoidal time dependence: ε(t)=ε0+Asinωt.
... Parameters used in different experiments studying LZS interferometry: tunneling amplitude Δ, maximal driving amplitude Amax, and driving **frequency** ω in the units GHz×2π, minimal adiabaticity parameter δmin=Δ2/(4ωAmax), and maximal LZ probability PLZmax=exp(−2πδmin).

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