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The effect of autoclaving (120°C/30min), debranching (2% pullulanase/1h) and storage at 4°C (DS4) or 32°C (DS32) or 60°C (DS60) for 24h on starch fractions, functional, pasting, thermal and structural properties of sweet potato starch was investigated. Results showed that DS4 sample displayed the lower functional properties than other modified starches. Debranching showed a significant increase in the apparent amylose content of native starch from 18.56% to 25%. A higher yield of RS (28.76%) was observed in debranched starch stored at 4°C (DS4) due to the higher degree of retrogradation. All debranched starches showed a substantial decrease in pasting profile and higher gelatinization temperatures than in native starch. B+V X-ray diffraction pattern was observed in debranched starches with increased crystallinity value. The scanning electron micrographs of debranched starches showed rough plate-like surfaces with irregularly shaped structures were observed due to debranching and retrogradation during storage. The study concludes that a combination of autoclaving, debranching and subsequent storage at 4°C is best technique to produce a higher amount of resistant starch in the sweet potato starch.
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Las reacciones adversas a medicamentos (RAM) son un problema de salud pública y una importante causa de morbimortalidad a nivel mundial. En el caso de los fármacos antiepilépticos (FAE), la presencia de RAM puede ser un impedimento para lograr el éxito terapéutico al dificultar la adherencia al tratamiento e impactar la calidad de vida del paciente. La farmacogenética busca la identificación de variantes genéticas asociadas a la seguridad de los fármacos. En este artículo se revisan los genes que codifican para enzimas metabolizadoras y transportadores de fármacos, así como en el sistema HLA asociados a RAM inducidas por FAE.
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Waste recovery is very important for public health and from environmental and industrial perspectives. The use of waste as useful raw material is strongly recommended, since it reduces the negative environmental impact associated with landfill and preserves non-renewable nature. This paper describes the usability of rock residue powder as an additive raw material in ceramic product. In the present study, qualitative analysis was carried out to determine the major and minor constituent minerals present in ceramic bodies made from rock residue powder by X-ray diffraction and FT-IR spectroscopic techniques. Also to study the mineralogical and physico-mechanical characterization of ceramic bodies made from rock residue powder. The present study demonstrates the usefulness of the physico-mechanical properties and spectroscopic techniques in determining the quality of the ceramic samples made from 10–50wt.% of rock residue additives.
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The extent and persistence of the inequality of regional output is an important policy issue in China and its sources have been the subject of considerable empirical research. Yet we have relatively little empirical knowledge of the effects on the regional distribution of output of shocks to national macroeconomic variables such as GDP and investment. This is an important gap in the empirical literature since much government macroeconomic policy seeks to influence GDP using instruments such as investment expenditure. It is likely that such national shocks will have differential regional impacts and so affect the regional output distribution. Policy-makers need to know the sign, size and timing of such effects before making policy decisions at the national level. We simulate the effects of aggregate shocks on individual provinces' GDP within the framework of a vector autoregressive (VAR) model restricted in a manner following Lastrapes (Economics Letters, 2005). We use annual data from 1980 to 2012 to estimate the model which includes 28 of China's provinces and simulate the effects on provincial outputs of shocks to aggregate output and investment. We find great diversity of effects across the provinces with discernible geographic patterns. There is evidence that output shocks benefit coastal provinces with developed industrial structure, export-exposure and less reliance on SOEs; the opposite is found for the effects of an investment shock and we conjecture that this is likely to have been the result of the strong bias in central government investment policy in favour of the interior provinces during a substantial part of our sample period.
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Many scholars have argued that the huge increase in regional inequality in China can be attributed greatly to the disparity in industrialization. This paper contributes to the literature by providing empirical evidence on the transitional dynamics of industrial output by employing a new framework of distribution dynamics analysis, namely, the mobility probability plot (MPP), and a county-level database made up of counties and county-level cities. The new framework can address several inadequacies of the traditional display tools used in the distribution dynamics literature. Stochastic kernel analyses are performed for the nation, the economic zones, and the provinces individually so as to provide an in-depth understanding of the evolution and convergence of industrial output. This study fills the gap in the literature and provides information on mobility of the county-level units, which can greatly aid the policy making process.
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The current survey exemplifies the achievements on experimental results of production of planting materials through in vitro direct or indirect organogenesis of genus Acacia. Several species of Acacia have been given due importance in tree tissue culture owing to their proven wasteland reclamation ability, ecological and economical significance. Plant cell, tissue and organ culture-based techniques have been employed in forest tree research for successful reforestation and forest management programs. The relevance of tissue culture methods has gained impetus to meet the growing demands for biomass and forest products. Ever since the last four decades, in vitro protocols are being developed with the aim to regenerate several woody species. This survey strives to serve as a compendium of various routine processes involving organogenesis of Acacia via in vitro; which would encouragingly be worthwhile for researchers to exploit this perennial woody legume with enormous multidimensional value, via more innovative approaches, in order to promote the cause for its improvement.
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Landslide databases provide essential information for hazard modeling, damages on buildings and infrastructure, mitigation, and research needs. This study presents the development of a landslide database system named WISL (Würzburg Information System on Landslides), currently storing detailed landslide data for northern Bavaria, Germany, in order to enable scientific queries as well as comparisons with other regional landslide inventories. WISL is based on free open source software solutions (PostgreSQL, PostGIS) assuring good correspondence of the various softwares and to enable further extensions with specific adaptions of self-developed software. Apart from that, WISL was designed to be particularly compatible for easy communication with other databases.
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Order-picking is the activity to retrieve items from the shelves to fulfill customers' orders. Order-picking is one of the most costly operations in warehousing accounting for 50–75% of total operating costs. This paper presents a novel model that is motivated by the normative order-picking algorithm known as “bucket brigades” to address multiple aisles in warehouses where workers have finite walk-back velocities and are allowed to pass successors. In order-picking operations, the majority of the previous research works have applied bucket brigades over a single-line (serial) system. The contributions of this research work are as follows. (1) A summary of an updated literature review of bucket brigades using a state-of-the-art-matrix. (2) A novel multi-aisle order picking model motivated by the normative single-aisle bucket brigade, which represents a more comprehensive and realistic scenario in order fulfillment warehouses. (3) A comparison between the single-line and multi-aisle models in order to analyze the difference in performance in terms of average system utilization, order cycle time and throughput. (4) A sensitivity analysis of different parameters and scenarios in order to identify the best routing heuristic, storage assignment and order type that maximizes utilization, minimizes cycle time and maximizes throughput in multi-aisle order picking systems. The results of the simulation studies are reported and analyzed. The proposed model is flexible and easily scalable to include other real-life warehousing considerations.
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The most important issue of intelligent mobile robot development is to navigate autonomously in the environment for completing certain task demands. Nowadays, the Kinect sensor is affordable and popular for acquiring environment RGB image pixels with depth estimation. In this study, we focus on developing the indoor localization system for intelligent mobile robot applications. The innovation of this research is to combine the RGB-D mapping and neural network training for achieving an Indoor Positioning System. It is expected that the inputs are the robot’s observations of environmental features / landmarks and the direct output is the robot’s posture which will correspond to the RGB-D map. All the experimental results suggest that the robot’s posture and localization adjusts very efficiently with this study’s proposed method.
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Efficient use of energy is an important step toward enhancing the sustainability of agricultural systems. In this study, we evaluated the energy balance of grape orchards in Shahriar, Iran. We collected information of energy input and energy output in 120 grape orchards through face to face questionnaires. This information was further used to evaluate net energy, energy use efficiency, energy intensity, and energy productivity in these orchards. The total energy used in grape orchards was 31777MJha−1. Nitrogen fertilizer, manure, and irrigation water were the major energy-demanding inputs in grape production by a share of 36, 17, and 11% of the total energy inputs, respectively. The energy output was estimated as 202871MJha−1. Net energy, specific energy, energy efficiency, and energy productivity in orchard grape were calculated as 171095MJha−1, 1.85MJkg−1, 6.38, 0.54kgMJ−1, respectively. This information can be very useful in evaluating the sustainability of grape production in this region and can also provide a useful guide in order to prioritize the steps toward enhancing energy efficiency in these orchards.
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