Contributors:R. Vijayaragavan, S. Mullainathan, P. Ambalavanan, S. Nithiyanantham
Waste recovery is very important for public health and from environmental and industrial perspectives. The use of waste as useful raw material is strongly recommended, since it reduces the negative environmental impact associated with landfill and preserves non-renewable nature. This paper describes the usability of rock residue powder as an additive raw material in ceramic product. In the present study, qualitative analysis was carried out to determine the major and minor constituent minerals present in ceramic bodies made from rock residue powder by X-ray diffraction and FT-IR spectroscopic techniques. Also to study the mineralogical and physico-mechanical characterization of ceramic bodies made from rock residue powder. The present study demonstrates the usefulness of the physico-mechanical properties and spectroscopic techniques in determining the quality of the ceramic samples made from 10–50wt.% of rock residue additives.
The extent and persistence of the inequality of regional output is an important policy issue in China and its sources have been the subject of considerable empirical research. Yet we have relatively little empirical knowledge of the effects on the regional distribution of output of shocks to national macroeconomic variables such as GDP and investment. This is an important gap in the empirical literature since much government macroeconomic policy seeks to influence GDP using instruments such as investment expenditure. It is likely that such national shocks will have differential regional impacts and so affect the regional output distribution. Policy-makers need to know the sign, size and timing of such effects before making policy decisions at the national level. We simulate the effects of aggregate shocks on individual provinces' GDP within the framework of a vector autoregressive (VAR) model restricted in a manner following Lastrapes (Economics Letters, 2005). We use annual data from 1980 to 2012 to estimate the model which includes 28 of China's provinces and simulate the effects on provincial outputs of shocks to aggregate output and investment. We find great diversity of effects across the provinces with discernible geographic patterns. There is evidence that output shocks benefit coastal provinces with developed industrial structure, export-exposure and less reliance on SOEs; the opposite is found for the effects of an investment shock and we conjecture that this is likely to have been the result of the strong bias in central government investment policy in favour of the interior provinces during a substantial part of our sample period.
Many scholars have argued that the huge increase in regional inequality in China can be attributed greatly to the disparity in industrialization. This paper contributes to the literature by providing empirical evidence on the transitional dynamics of industrial output by employing a new framework of distribution dynamics analysis, namely, the mobility probability plot (MPP), and a county-level database made up of counties and county-level cities. The new framework can address several inadequacies of the traditional display tools used in the distribution dynamics literature. Stochastic kernel analyses are performed for the nation, the economic zones, and the provinces individually so as to provide an in-depth understanding of the evolution and convergence of industrial output. This study fills the gap in the literature and provides information on mobility of the county-level units, which can greatly aid the policy making process.
Contributors:Saikat Gantait, Suprabuddha Kundu, Prakash Kanti Das
The current survey exemplifies the achievements on experimental results of production of planting materials through in vitro direct or indirect organogenesis of genus Acacia. Several species of Acacia have been given due importance in tree tissue culture owing to their proven wasteland reclamation ability, ecological and economical significance. Plant cell, tissue and organ culture-based techniques have been employed in forest tree research for successful reforestation and forest management programs. The relevance of tissue culture methods has gained impetus to meet the growing demands for biomass and forest products. Ever since the last four decades, in vitro protocols are being developed with the aim to regenerate several woody species. This survey strives to serve as a compendium of various routine processes involving organogenesis of Acacia via in vitro; which would encouragingly be worthwhile for researchers to exploit this perennial woody legume with enormous multidimensional value, via more innovative approaches, in order to promote the cause for its improvement.
Contributors:Daniel Jäger, Thomas Kreuzer, Martina Wilde, Stefan Bemm, Birgit Terhorst
Landslide databases provide essential information for hazard modeling, damages on buildings and infrastructure, mitigation, and research needs. This study presents the development of a landslide database system named WISL (Würzburg Information System on Landslides), currently storing detailed landslide data for northern Bavaria, Germany, in order to enable scientific queries as well as comparisons with other regional landslide inventories. WISL is based on free open source software solutions (PostgreSQL, PostGIS) assuring good correspondence of the various softwares and to enable further extensions with specific adaptions of self-developed software. Apart from that, WISL was designed to be particularly compatible for easy communication with other databases.
Contributors:Sadia Quader, Krystel K. Castillo-Villar
Order-picking is the activity to retrieve items from the shelves to fulfill customers' orders. Order-picking is one of the most costly operations in warehousing accounting for 50–75% of total operating costs. This paper presents a novel model that is motivated by the normative order-picking algorithm known as “bucket brigades” to address multiple aisles in warehouses where workers have finite walk-back velocities and are allowed to pass successors. In order-picking operations, the majority of the previous research works have applied bucket brigades over a single-line (serial) system. The contributions of this research work are as follows. (1) A summary of an updated literature review of bucket brigades using a state-of-the-art-matrix. (2) A novel multi-aisle order picking model motivated by the normative single-aisle bucket brigade, which represents a more comprehensive and realistic scenario in order fulfillment warehouses. (3) A comparison between the single-line and multi-aisle models in order to analyze the difference in performance in terms of average system utilization, order cycle time and throughput. (4) A sensitivity analysis of different parameters and scenarios in order to identify the best routing heuristic, storage assignment and order type that maximizes utilization, minimizes cycle time and maximizes throughput in multi-aisle order picking systems. The results of the simulation studies are reported and analyzed. The proposed model is flexible and easily scalable to include other real-life warehousing considerations.
The most important issue of intelligent mobile robot development is to navigate autonomously in the environment for completing certain task demands. Nowadays, the Kinect sensor is affordable and popular for acquiring environment RGB image pixels with depth estimation. In this study, we focus on developing the indoor localization system for intelligent mobile robot applications. The innovation of this research is to combine the RGB-D mapping and neural network training for achieving an Indoor Positioning System. It is expected that the inputs are the robot’s observations of environmental features / landmarks and the direct output is the robot’s posture which will correspond to the RGB-D map. All the experimental results suggest that the robot’s posture and localization adjusts very efficiently with this study’s proposed method.
Efficient use of energy is an important step toward enhancing the sustainability of agricultural systems. In this study, we evaluated the energy balance of grape orchards in Shahriar, Iran. We collected information of energy input and energy output in 120 grape orchards through face to face questionnaires. This information was further used to evaluate net energy, energy use efficiency, energy intensity, and energy productivity in these orchards. The total energy used in grape orchards was 31777MJha−1. Nitrogen fertilizer, manure, and irrigation water were the major energy-demanding inputs in grape production by a share of 36, 17, and 11% of the total energy inputs, respectively. The energy output was estimated as 202871MJha−1. Net energy, specific energy, energy efficiency, and energy productivity in orchard grape were calculated as 171095MJha−1, 1.85MJkg−1, 6.38, 0.54kgMJ−1, respectively. This information can be very useful in evaluating the sustainability of grape production in this region and can also provide a useful guide in order to prioritize the steps toward enhancing energy efficiency in these orchards.
Contributors:A.A. Alsobayel, M.S. Rabea, M.A. Alodan
A total of 720 one day old chicks of three different commercial broiler strains (Isa, Ross and Arbor Acres), were obtained from hatching eggs stored for 0, 7 and 14days under 70–80% relative humidity and 16–18°C. Eighty chicks of each strain and storage period were used in the study. Chicks of each storage period were randomly divided into 4 replicates of 20 chicks in each of equal group weight and randomly allotted to 1m×1.5m pens located in an environmentally controlled house. Birds were fed a starter diet to 3weeks, followed by finisher diet to 5weeks of age, which contain 21.5% and 18.5% crude protein and 2950 and 3100kcal/kg metabolizable energy, respectively. At 5weeks of age, 3 males and 3 females were randomly selected from each replicate, individually weighed and were slaughtered after they have been fasted for 12h. Measurements were made of bird plant weight, carcass weight and its percentage of plant weight, abdominal fat weight, heart, liver and gizzard weights and their percentages of plant and carcass weight. The results of study reported herein revealed that strain and storage period of hatching eggs had a pronounced effect upon most studied traits. The results also showed that broilers of Arbor Acres and those of hatching eggs stored for seven days or less had in general the best carcass traits.
Contributors:M. Hachicha, B. Kahlaoui, N. Khamassi, E. Misle, O. Jouzdan
Two experiments were carried out to study the effect of the electromagnetic treatment of saline water on seed germination of corn and the response of soil and potato crop irrigated with such water. The experiments were performed under controlled conditions with different water quality and soil texture. The electromagnetic water treatment was applied using Aqua-4D physical water treatment device. Results showed a significant increase in germination rate of corn seedlings watered with electromagnetic-treated saline water (EC=4dSm−1), particularly when water was exposed to electromagnetic fields for 15min. The experiments carried on potato crop with two soil textures, showed a significant increase in tuber yield when irrigated with electromagnetic treated water. It was also observed a significant decrease of soil salinity (ECe), Na+ and Cl− contents of soils irrigated with electromagnetic treated saline water compared to the soils irrigated with non-treated saline water. In contrast, compared to both treatments (control treatment and saline water treatment), the electromagnetic saline water treatment produced non-significant effect on tuber yield, Mg2+ and HCO3-. However, the electromagnetic treatment of saline water increased significantly K+, N and P adsorption in all tissues of potato and decreased significantly the adverse effects of saline water. Based on our results, electromagnetic treatment of saline water can reduce the negative effect of salinity on corn germination and potato crop and increase yield in about 10% in test conditions.