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In this review paper synthesis of different classes of five/six membered heterocyclic cyanine dyes have been reviewed. In this paper review detailed synthesis steps were represented via equations. The synthesis covers, monomethine cyanine dyes (simple cyanine dyes), dimethine cyanine dyes, trimethine cyanine dyes (carbocyanine dyes), styryl cyanine dyes (hemicyanine dyes), aza-styryl cyanine dyes (aza-hemicyanine dyes and/or aza-cyanine dyes), merocyanine dyes (acyclic merocyanine dyes and cyclic merocyanine dyes) and apocyanine dyes. Besides, in the introduction section of this review paper some light is focused on the uses, applications and properties of cyanine dyes. This review paper is informative, useful and very readable for synthetic dye chemists, researchers and students who look for the different methods in the synthesis and preparation of various classes of five/six membered heterocyclic cyanine dyes with special emphasize in the field of heterocyclic and/or cyanine dyes chemistry. This specific type of collective review in the synthesis of different classes of only five/six membered heterocyclic cyanine dyes has been paid little attention and has great importance in the chemistry literature.
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Present study was designed to produce biodiesel using Cola lepidota seed oil in the presence of clay catalyst. The extraction was done in petroleum ether and oil was characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer (FTIR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques. The biodiesel produced, was characterized for specific gravity, kinematic viscosity, American petroleum index (API) gravity, flash point, cloud point, aniline point and diesel index. The result from FTIR shows that there was C-N stretching aliphatic amine at 1072.46 cm-1, CH2X alkyl halides at 1226.77 cm-1, C-C stretching (in ring) aromatics at 1442.80 cm-1, N-O asymmetric stretching nitro compounds at 1527.67cm-1, C=C stretching α, β unsaturated esters at 1712.85 cm-1, C-C stretching aromatics at 2924.18 cm-1, O-H stretch or free hydroxyl alcohols or phenols at 3610.86 cm-1. The oil yield was 1.76%. The result revealed that the biodiesel showed the following properties; specific gravity (0.862 g/cm3), viscosity (4.8mm2/sec), API (30.24 oC), flash point (80 oC), cloud point (-2 oC), aniline point (68 oC) and diesel index (1.424). These values were within the recommended limits of American Standard for Testing Material (ASTM D6751). This study reveals that C. lepidota oil is a veritable precursor for biodiesel production and other industrial applications.
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Five combustible mixtures of automotive gas oil and dual purpose kerosene were obtained from a retail outlet and blended into different automotive gas oil (AGO) and dual purpose kerosene (DPK) proportions (85:15, 75: 25, 50:50, 25:75 & 15:85% (v/v)). Samples were analyzed using densitometer, hydrometer, karl fischer titrator, pour and cloud point tester based on American Standard for Testing and Materials (ASTM) with the aim of delimiting the degree to which adulteration affects the quality of the pure sample, impact on the environment as well as the effects on compression ignition engines. Results obtained from the analyses of the blended ratios show the following parameters in the ranges; density (0.858–0.827g/cm3); specific gravity@60 0F (0.859–0.828), kinematic viscosity (4.800–1.200 cSt), cloud point (7.000–2.000 oC), pour point (-15.000 – < -34.000 oC) and moisture content (500.000–1200.000 ppm). Results of the analyses showed that 85 % dual purpose kerosene in the blended mixture fell below American Standard for testing and materials (ASTM) and Department for Petroleum Resources (DPR) acceptable standard in terms of viscosity. A maximum of 15% dual purpose kerosene in the blended mixture fell within ASTM specification in terms of moisture content. Specific gravity, density, cloud point and pour point of all the bended samples were within specification. Adulterating automotive gas oil with dual purpose kerosene at (≥ 15:85 %) AGO:DPK ratio as well as the use of biomass as an alternative source of energy due to diversion of dual purpose kerosene for adulteration, results in the release of various types of harmful poly aromatic hydrocarbons to the environment through the exhaust of diesel engines and cooking respectively. It can also lead to reduction in compression ratio, power loss as well as wear and tear of engine parts.
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This study investigated the nutraceutical potential of ripe and unripe plantain fruit peels which are commonly discarded as food wastes. Proximate and mineral analyses of the samples were performed as per the standard methods of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Preliminary phytochemical screening of aqueous, acetone and methanol extracts of the peels was also carried out in accordance to standard methods. From the results of the study, acetone extract of the unripe peel showed the presence of eight phytochemicals while its ripe peel showed the presence of four. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of both peels showed the presence of same phytochemicals i.e., terpenoids, cardiac glycosides, phenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, reducing sugars and saponins. Meanwhile, tannins was absent in all three solvent extracts of both peels. Fat, ash, crude fibre and carbohydrate contents of the unripe peel were higher than those of the ripe. However, moisture and protein contents of the ripe peel were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of the unripe. Of all the nine essential minerals assayed (K, Na, Mg, Ca, P, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu), concentrations of all except calcium were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the unripe peel than those of the ripe peel. Notably, none of the heavy metals (Co, Cr, Cd, Pb, Ni) assayed was detected in both samples. This study concludes that ripe and unripe plantain fruit peels could serve as promising sources of nutrients and bioactive compounds essential for the health of both livestock and humans.
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Dinelytron unilineatus ( Redtenbacher, 1906) comb. nov. Fig. 26A, C. Damasippus unilineatus Redtenbacher, 1906: 149; Brock et al., 2017 ( Phasmatodea world catalog). Examined material. Lectotype _ ( Fig. 26A) (present designation, examined by photo): "Mus. Caes. Vind., Neu Freibrug [Nova Friburgo, Rio de Janeiro], Bras. [ Brazil], Thorey", " det. Redtenb. [acher], D. unilineatus " ( MNHN France). Paralectotype _ ( Fig. 26C) (present designation, examined by photo): same as holotype. Diagnosis. Posterior wing with basal and medial third of costal area copper-colored ( Fig. 26A-C). Vomer with basal third widened, gradually narrowing towards apex, without lateral indentation ( Fig. 26B). Type condition. Lectotype (present designation): in good conditions, except for the fact that the body is covered entirely by fungi. Paralectotype (present designation): missing approximately half the length of the left antenna. Left anterior and posterior legs both missing. Body covered by fungus. Geographical records. Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, Nova Friburgo. Remarks. This species was transferred from Damasippus to Dinelytron due to the types (the only known specimens) having the head opaque, dorsally flattened and posterior wing with anal area entirely hyaline, characters that are diagnostic of Dinelytron.
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Dinelytron betinho sp. nov. Fig. 8A-B. Examined material. Holotype _ ( Fig. 8A-B, D): "Viçosa, MG [ Minas Gerais], BRASIL, Data 10.xi.1982, Fiuza & Martins [collector], Corrego do Paraíso, Mata da Prefeitura, Armadilha UV [ blacklight trap]" ( UFV). Paratypes: same data as holotype, except " 4.xi.1981 " (1 _ UFV); " 10.xi.1982 " (3 _ UFV). Etymology. The species name is dedicated to Alberto Moreira Silva Neto, nicknamed "betinho". Diagnosis. Clypeus 4.7 times wider than high ( Fig. 8C-D). Median vein of tegmina bifurcated in Medial anterior and Medial posterior at base; Medial anterior bifurcated in medial anterior 1 and 2 at approximately half the length of tegmina ( Fig. 8E). Male subgenital plate with lateral projection at apical margin ( Fig. 9B). Male genitalia in dorsal view: basal pouch auriform ( Figs. 4, 5 and 10). Apex of dorsal left sclerite þ left posterior process ovoid ( Figs. 4, 5 and 10). Internal sclerite two times shorter than basal pouch, somewhat reniform ( Fig. 10). Description. Body dark brown. Head. Frontal suture conspicuous, forming conspicuous light brown sulcus ( Fig. 8C); coronal suture conspicuous. Clypeus 4.7 times wider than high, light yellow with light brown spots; medially with inconspicuous depression ( Fig. 8C, D). Labrum light yellow, asymmetric, with left half slightly longer than right half ( Fig. 8C, D). Antenna with flagellomere 1 subrectangular, 2.5 times longer than wide and three times longer than flagellomere 2; flagellomere 2 subquadrangular; flagellomere 3 rectangular, two times longer than flagellomere 2. Compound eye globose, light brown with black spots ( Fig. 8C). Thorax. Pronotum with median longitudinal sulcus and transversal black spot at apical margin. Mesonotum 2.2 times longer than pronotum, with black spot at basal margin, median longitudinal carina. Coxopleurite rugose, light brown, semi-ellipsoid ( Fig. 8B). Mesothoracic epimeron smooth, light brown, rounded; mesothoracic episternum rugose, anteriorly light brown, posteriorly dark brown, subtriangular ( Fig. 8B). Metathoracic pleural region smooth, subtrapezoidal ( Fig. 8B). Thoracic venter yellow, with dark brown longitudinal medial line from base to apex. Probasisternum trapezoidal, with anterior margin arched, convex. Meso- and meta-basisterna smooth, rectangular, longer than wide, with medial circular sclerite concolor with venter. Legs. All legs dorsally light brown ( Fig. 8B), ventrally light yellow, laterally with white setae; apical third of femurs and basal third of tibias with black spots ( Fig.8A, B). Anterior femur 6 times longer than wide, dorsally with three conspicuous longitudinal parallel carinae ( Fig. 8B); ventrally smooth. Anterior tibia dorsally setose, with two conspicuous longitudinal carinae; ventrally smooth. Mid femur ventrally with median longitudinal carina and four spines at anterior margin. Posterior femur with three longitudinal parallel carinae dorsally; ventrally with six inconspicuous spines at anterior margin; ventro-posterior margin slightly sinuous, better observed ventrally. Wings. Tegmina light brown, with rounded apex ( Fig. 8E). Radial vein subdivided in Radial anterior and Radial posterior at apical third ( Fig. 8E). Median vein bifurcated in Medial anterior and Medial posterior at base; Medial anterior bifurcated in medial anterior 1 and 2 at approximately half the length of tegmina ( Fig. 8E). Cubital vein slightly curved. Posterior wing with distal portion of costal area concolor with tegmina; veins of anal area inconspicuous. Abdomen. Abdominal terga opaque. Terga 1-7 rectangular, longer than wide, with longitudinal medial carinae and sparse granules. Tergum 8 trapezoidal, 1.2 times longer than tergum 9 ( Fig. 9A). Tergum 9 trapezoidal, with basal margin straight,1.3 times wider than apical margin, which is slightly concave ( Fig.9A).Tergum 10 two times shorter than Tergum 8, with basal margin concave, lateral margin straight, apical margin convex ( Fig. 9A). Cercus laterally flattened, with setae ( Fig. 9A, C). Sterna 1-9 gradually decreasing in length. Sterna 7-9 with conspicuous wide longitudinal medial sulcus ( Fig. 9B). Sternum 7 rectangular, 1.6 times wider than long with all margins straight ( Fig. 9B). Sternum 8 rectangular, three times wider than long, with convex basal and lateral margins, sinuous apical margin ( Fig. 9B). Subgenital plate (sternum 9), rectangular, with basal and lateral margin convex; apical margin concave, laterally with rhomboid projection ( Fig. 9B). Vomer with slightly sinuous lateral margin, acute and black apex ( Fig. 6C). Genitalia ( Figs. 4, 5 and 10). Basal pouch auriform. Dorsal left sclerite attached to dorsal wall of genitalia; medial portion of dorsal left sclerite conspicuously arched; apex of dorsal left sclerite þ left posterior process ovoid. Left posterior process conspicuous. Internal sclerite two times shorter than basal pouch, somewhat reniform, in dorsal view seeming to be located underneath the basal pouch. Flagellum present. Measurements (mm). Body length 34.5-35.2; dorsal head length 1.5-1.7; pronotum 1.4-1.5; mesonotum 1.2-1.3; anterior femur 6.5-6.6; anterior tibia 3.2-3.3; mid femur 3.6; mid tibia 2.4-2.7; posterior femur 6.7; posterior tibia 4.3-4.4. Type condition. Holotype: left anterior and right posterior legs and left antenna glued to a piece of label paper pinned to the specimen support. Right antenna with approximately half the length missing. Geographical records. Brazil, Minas Gerais: Viçosa. Remarks. This species can be easily distinguished from all other Dinelytron species by the subgenital plate with latero-apical rhomboid projection on the apical margin.
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Damasippus Stål, 1875 Figs. 1 and 2A. Type species: Damasippus westwoodii Stål, 1875 by subsequent designation of Kirby (1904). Damasippus Stål, 1875: 60; Kirby 1904: 407 (list of synonyms of former Orthoptera); Redtenbacher 1906: 147 (taxonomy); Bradley & Galil 1977: 79 (taxonomic arrangement); Zompro 2004: 309 (phylogeny); Rafael & Heleodoro 2017 (Brazilian catalog); Brock et al. 2019 (world catalog). Examined material. Damasippus discoidalis: "Coll. Br. V., Theresopolis [Teresopolis, state of Rio de Janeiro], Michaelis col." (2 \ syntypes NMW). Damasippus spatulatus: "Serra de Macahe [Macae], Estado do Rio de Janeiro [state of Rio de Janeiro]" " Damasippus spatulatus, Piza _ " ( _ holotype MZUSP). D. westwoodii: " Panama " " Boucard [col.]" ( \ holotype NHRS). Damasippus discoidalis: "Floresta da Tijuca, D. [istrito] Federal [ Rio de Janeiro], Brasil, iii.1952, C. A. Campos Seabra" ( \ MNRJ lost in the burning), " Distrito Federal [ Rio de Janeiro], Paineiras [host plant], 2.ii.1953, Newton Santos" ( \ MNRJ lost in the burning), "S ao~ Paulo, Alto da Serra [Paranapiacaba]" ( _ MZUSP). Damasippus piceippenis: "S~ao Paulo, Horto da Cantareira, v.1982, E. Berti Filho col." ( \ ESALQ). Damasippus spatulatus: "[ Brazil], Fazenda Peneco, Itatiaia [ Rio de Janeiro], 21.ii.1942 ", "Maromba, Itatiaia, Rio de Janeiro, 29.xii.1952, Leite, Seabra e Zikan col." (2 _ MNRJ lost in the burning). Diagnosis. Head subshiny, dorsally globose ( Fig. 2A, B). Anterior femur with inconspicuous anterior and posterior expansions ( Fig. 2C). Posterior wing with complete, widely arched infuscate band along posterior and anal margins, leaving a regular semicircular or somewhat irregular semicircular light-coloured area basally ( Fig. 2A). Male genitalia with left and right posterior process, forming a bifurcated posterior margin on the genitalia; dorsal left sclerite slender, tubulliform, almost straight; basal pouch bacilliform ( Fig. 2D, E). Description of genitalia ( _). Dorsal and ventral lobe continuously connected. Dorsal lobe with small, scattered setae, having the area near the basal pouch dorsally projected ( Fig. 3A, B). Left and right posterior process present, forming a bifurcated posterior margin on the genitalia ( Fig. 3A, B). Dorsal left sclerite slender, tubuliform, slightly curved ( Fig. 3A, B). Basal pouch bacilliform, separated from dorsal lobe ( Fig. 3A, B), having small, scattered bristles ventrally. Ventral lobe subdivided in small conspicuous lower lobule and upper lobule, having small scattered setae at the distal-most potion; lower lobule with small inconspicuous bifid digitiform projection.
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D. hipponax Gray, 1835 This species was described based only on its type specimens, which Westwood (1859) confirmed to be lost. Di. hipponax was supposed to have been included in the personal collection of Westwood. The description of the species is only three lines long, and mostly describe the coloration of the body and a few spines. With this low amount of information, it is impossible to identify any possible specimen from the species or elect a neotype for analysis. Due the lack of any reliable taxonomic criteria for identification, Di. hipponax is therefore excluded from the taxonomic revision.
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Prisopus horstokkii " BRASIL, Amazonas, Coari, Rio Urucu, SUC-2, 4º57 0 58"S / 65º19 0 38 00 W, 21-22/V/1993, P.F. Buhrnheim et al. col." "Arm. [adilha] lum. [inosa] Pensilv^ania" (4 _ 5 \, UFAM)/" BRASIL, ( PI), Guaribas, Parque Nacional Serra das Confus ~ oes, Andorinha, 515 m, 09º 08 0 27" S /43º33 0 32.1 00 W" (1 \ CZMA).
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Prisopus berosus Westwood, 1859, syntype _: " Syntype " " 476 " "Berosus, Westwood" " Prisopus berosus Westwo. [od]" " BMNH ( E) # 845172 " ( NHM).
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