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  • SUMMARY Mimicry is ubiquitous in nature, yet understanding its origin and evolution is complicated by the scarcity of exceptional fossils that enable behavioural inferences about extinct animals. Here we report bizarre true bugs (Hemiptera) that closely resemble beetles (Coleoptera) from mid-Cretaceous amber. The unusual fossil bugs are described as Bersta vampirica gen. et sp. nov. and B. coleopteromorpha gen. et sp. nov., and are placed into a new family, Berstidae fam. nov. The specialised mouthparts of berstids indicate that they were predaceous on small arthropods and their striking beetle-like appearance implies that they mimicked beetles to attack unsuspecting prey; this unique association is not seen among extant insects and represents the first case of aggressive mimicry in the invertebrate fossil record. This rare example of fossilised behaviour enriches our understanding of the palaeoecological associations and extinct behavioural strategies of Mesozoic insects.
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  • Correct estimation of crop coefficients is essential to accurately assess water requirements of crops and thereby optimize irrigation management. The objectives of this study were (i) to quantify evapotranspiration and water use efficiency of potato crops grown in different locations and seasons in a semi-arid climate under irrigation, (ii) to estimate Kc values for these crops at different growth stages, and (iii) to assess the usefulness of the Penman-Monteith equation to estimate evapotranspiration and irrigation requirements. An eddy covariance system (ECV) was used in potato fields in three production regions of South Africa: the western Free State (summer crop), North West (spring crop) and Limpopo (winter crop). An IRGASON integrated open-path CO2/H2O gas analyzer - the ECV system (Campbell Scientific) was used to measure the H2O vapour fluxes above the crop canopy. It was integrated with a sonic anemometer, which measures the three-dimensional wind speed. Additional supporting sensors (fine wire thermocouple, NR-Lite net radiometer, silicon pyranometer, krypton hygrometer, CS616 reflectometer, Hukseflux heat flux plates) and a tipping bucket rain gauge were added to the system. Data were sampled at a frequency of 10 Hz, processed using EasyFlux DL software (Campbell Scientific), and recorded using a CR3000 datalogger. Seasonal mean crop evapotranspiration (ETc) was 4.6, 4.4 and 2.8 mm/day, respectively, for the summer, spring and winter crops. The reference evapotranspiration (ETo) correlated well with the daily patterns in ETc (r = 0.89, 0.56 and 0.76 for winter, spring and summer potato crops, respectively) and can be used for irrigation scheduling of potato. Seasonal mean Kc values varied considerably between the winter (1.00) and the spring (0.69) / summer (0.79) crops. This range is within the range reported from other parts of the world. The winter crop had the highest WUE of 3.2 kg dry potato tuber m3 of water evapotranspired, whilst WUE for the spring and summer crops was 2.9 and 2.2 kg/m3. The corresponding dry matter tuber yields were 12.0 t/ha (winter crop), 14.1 t/ha (spring crop) and 9.1 t ha/1 (summer crop). Our results suggest that ETo, which can be relatively easily estimated based on data from a weather station, can be used for irrigation scheduling of potato, but Kc values used to estimate crop evapotranspiration and irrigation requirements may need to be adjusted depending on the cropping season. Water use efficiency of potato was higher for the crop growing in the cooler winter compared to the crops growing in spring / summer. To optimize water use efficiency of potato in water-scarce areas that rely mostly on irrigation water for potato production, it is advisable to grow potato crops in the cooler season, outside the frost-prone period if possible.
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  • In this work, 0.3, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 wt.% concentration samples of MWCNT/water nanofluids have been prepared. Rheological behaviour of MWCNT/water nanofluids have been examined at different temperatures under the controlled shear stress of 0-35 Pa. Higher viscosity results were found for higher concentration nanofluids.
    Data Types:
    • Tabular Data
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  • This data set includes the method for calculating elastic modulus, relevant figures, detailed mechanical parameters and chemical components of the tested indentation areas.
    Data Types:
    • Tabular Data
    • Dataset
    • Document
  • Correct estimation of crop coefficients is essential to accurately assess water requirements of crops and thereby optimize irrigation management. The objectives of this study were (i) to quantify evapotranspiration and water use efficiency of potato crops grown in different locations and seasons in a semi-arid climate under irrigation, (ii) to estimate Kc values for these crops at different growth stages, and (iii) to assess the usefulness of the Penman-Monteith equation to estimate evapotranspiration and irrigation requirements. An eddy covariance system (ECV) was used in potato fields in three production regions of South Africa: the western Free State (summer crop), North West (spring crop) and Limpopo (winter crop). An IRGASON integrated open-path CO2/H2O gas analyzer - the ECV system (Campbell Scientific) was used to measure the H2O vapour fluxes above the crop canopy. It was integrated with a sonic anemometer, which measures the three-dimensional wind speed. Additional supporting sensors (fine wire thermocouple, NR-Lite net radiometer, silicon pyranometer, krypton hygrometer, CS616 reflectometer, Hukseflux heat flux plates) and a tipping bucket rain gauge were added to the system. Data were sampled at a frequency of 10 Hz, processed using EasyFlux DL software (Campbell Scientific), and recorded using a CR3000 datalogger. Seasonal mean crop evapotranspiration (ETc) was 4.6, 4.4 and 2.8 mm/day, respectively, for the summer, spring and winter crops. The reference evapotranspiration (ETo) correlated well with the daily patterns in ETc (r = 0.89, 0.56 and 0.76 for winter, spring and summer potato crops, respectively) and can be used for irrigation scheduling of potato. Seasonal mean Kc values varied considerably between the winter (1.00) and the spring (0.69) / summer (0.79) crops. This range is within the range reported from other parts of the world. The winter crop had the highest WUE of 3.2 kg dry potato tuber m3 of water evapotranspired, whilst WUE for the spring and summer crops was 2.9 and 2.2 kg/m3. The corresponding dry matter tuber yields were 12.0 t/ha (winter crop), 14.1 t/ha (spring crop) and 9.1 t ha/1 (summer crop). Our results suggest that ETo, which can be relatively easily estimated based on data from a weather station, can be used for irrigation scheduling of potato, but Kc values used to estimate crop evapotranspiration and irrigation requirements may need to be adjusted depending on the cropping season. Water use efficiency of potato was higher for the crop growing in the cooler winter compared to the crops growing in spring / summer. To optimize water use efficiency of potato in water-scarce areas that rely mostly on irrigation water for potato production, it is advisable to grow potato crops in the cooler season, outside the frost-prone period if possible.
    Data Types:
    • Tabular Data
    • Dataset
  • The database contains cross-border exposures (as a % of total exposures) to individual countries for the 61 largest European banks over the years 2010-2015. Getting a complete overview of the cross-border positions of European banks is challenging, as there are no regular reporting standards for banks’ foreign exposures split by country. One option is to focus on banks’ foreign subsidiaries. This may however lead to a significant underestimation of a bank’s foreign activities, especially since European banks conduct around half of their foreign activities vis branches. With this dataset we aim to provide a more complete picture of banks' cross-border exposures and collected the data ourselves from public sources. We collected the data for the 61 largest European banks. These banks together represent around two-third of total European banking assets. The 61 banks together invest in 138 different countries (the countries are presented by their ISO2 codes). Data on cross-border exposures are primarily obtained from annual reports, and, when needed, supplemented with data stemming from the public EBA stress tests conducted in 2011 and 2013, and CRD IV country-by-country reporting.Due to the absence of a standard reporting format some assumptions and simplifications had to be made. First of all, the majority of banks report their foreign exposures in loans or assets, but some banks use the net income as the reporting unit. As we are especially interested in banks’ credit exposures to other countries, we had an order of preference for exposures reported in i) loans; ii) assets; and iii) net income. Second, we aimed for cross-border exposures at the country level as for our analysis we link home and host country characteristics. However, sometimes only information on banks’ exposures to a group of countries (e.g. Western Europe) or continents (e.g. Asia) was available. In those cases, we simply reported the exposures to groups of countries or continents (see columns EN-EX in the database). Third, the data collection resulted in an almost complete overview of the foreign exposures of the 61 European banks. For only a small portion of foreign exposures (3.6% of the total foreign exposures or 1.1% of the total assets) we do not know to which region or country these belong . This is the case when banks report their remaining foreign exposures as “other” without mentioning the countries belonging to this group (here we used "in-sample" estimation). Note that it also happens that a bank reports about its cross-border exposures quite granular for one year (i.e. exposures to multipe individual countries), and the subsequent year only reports the total exposures to "rest of europe" and "america". In those cases information from the years with granular information is used to make assumptions about the other years' cross-border exposures.
    Data Types:
    • Tabular Data
    • Dataset
  • Appendix 1: Mineral chemistry Data Appendix 2: Precision and acuraccy Appendix 3: Compilated data for isotopic geochemistry
    Data Types:
    • Tabular Data
    • Dataset
  • Raw pollen counts and full pollen diagram from the RZ section, Nangqian Basin, Tibet, China
    Data Types:
    • Tabular Data
    • Dataset
  • A Mobile Monitoring System (MMS) has been designed having into account the use of technology with high sensor accuracy and with the capacity to be installed easily and quickly in different cardinal locations, distribution spaces, volumes and at different heights of a tertiary in-use building located in Leioa (Bilbao).Two types of MMS have been designed with the aim of doing two types of analysis, one intended to do the indoor air temperature uncertainty analysis and another focused on doing the outdoor air temperature uncertainty analysis. Eight tripods compose the indoor MMS with twenty sensors at different heights, which have been installed in different building’s offices in order to collect indoor temperature measurements at different heights and locations. As well, eight sensors compose the outdoor MMS to collect data of outdoor temperature measurements. Both MMS have been integrated to the existing Building Automation System (BAS) of the tertiary building; some data collected by the BAS have also been taken into account for the indoor and outdoor temperature uncertainty analysis. Seven tests have been carried out, five tests for the indoor temperature analysis and two tests for outdoor analysis. In the case of indoor MMS, one test has collected temperature data from all sensors together in the same place and at the same height, and four tests were carried out in four different offices with different typologies; all tests have been performed using the MMS at different periods using the same eight tripods. With the outdoor MMS, again, one test has collected temperature data of all sensors together located at the building’s roof and the final test has been carried out installing the sensors around the envelope of the building at different heights and cardinal locations. The potential of the datasets from the indoor and outdoor MMSs is based on the rigorous data collection process, which allows making an analysis of: temperature uncertainties, temperature stratification, temperature spatial behaviour and temperature behaviour analysis due to impact of solar radiation, heating system and electricity consumption.
    Data Types:
    • Tabular Data
    • Dataset
  • This dataset is collection of hardness and residual stress measurement result of UNSM treated various nickel based alloys
    Data Types:
    • Tabular Data
    • Dataset
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