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The effect of contacting neat ethanol and an ethanol: H2O mixture on Novozym® 435 was investigated at room temperature and 45°C, during various periods of time of interaction with the alcohol (from 40min to 8days) and at different biocatalyst: ethanol (ethanol/water) ratios. The alcohol dissolves the polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) that constitutes the support of the Candida antarctica B lipase (CALB) regardless of the conditions investigated and diffuses into the biocatalyst's beads remaining strongly adsorbed (the desorption of the alcohol is evidenced only upon heating at 150°C). The diffusion of the alcohol alters the inner texture of the beads generating channels and increasing the roughness of the polymeric material. Additionally, the ethanol (with or without water added) modifies the secondary structure of the enzyme by decreasing the α-helix contributions and increasing the β-sheet structure.
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For men with low-stage prostate cancer (PCa) managed with active surveillance (AS), clinical thresholds for intervention have not been definitively established. We aimed to evaluate whether the magnitude of quantitative risk change may serve as a refined end point. We identified 735 men managed with AS at our institution who received a minimum of two biopsies and who were followed for a median of 52 mo. We described the relative changes in the Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment (CAPRA) score from diagnosis to last follow-up and evaluated the proportion of patients experiencing changes in constituent clinical variables. Among patients treated with radical prostatectomy (RP), the association between change in CAPRA score and the occurrence of adverse pathology (pT3a or higher and/or primary Gleason pattern ≥4) was assessed using logistic regression models. Among patients ultimately treated with RP (n=196), unit increases in CAPRA score from diagnosis were associated with the occurrence of adverse pathology (odds ratio: 1.60; 95% confidence interval, 1.25–2.04; p<0.01). On this basis, disease reclassification should be regarded from the vantage of multiple parameters.
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Animal and human studies have suggested that some individuals use sexual imprinting, in which a template is created based on traits of one's opposite-sex parent (OSP), to assist in choosing potential mates. The current study investigates the role of parental attachment and early environment in the variance of using a sexual imprinted template. Two hundred twenty-nine undergraduate students from a Midwestern university completed the Parental Acceptance–Rejection Questionnaire (Rohner, 1990), answered questions on early environment, and rated traits of their opposite-sex parent, ideal partner, and acceptable partner. Results show varying evidence for sexual imprinting. In particular, there are correlations between secure attachment and stricter adherence to an opposite-sex parent template, especially for women, but no association between early environment and template variance.
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Two novel extraction techniques, pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and microwave-assisted solvent extraction (MAE) have been evaluated for the recovery of bioactive compounds from Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Microalga P. tricornutum is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as EPA, and has a high content of the carotenoid fucoxanthin, which is a valuable pigment with several biological activities. Cells were disrupted at high pressure and then freeze-dried as a previous step to extraction. Additionally, only green solvents as water and ethanol (EtOH) – and mixtures of them – were used. For comparison purposes, the same response variables were considered in both processes: extraction yield (% w/w), total phenolic content (Folin–Ciocalteu assay), total carotenoids and chlorophylls, and antioxidant activity (ABTS assay, expressed as TEAC value). Factorial experimental designs were employed for both PLE and MAE optimization, being %EtOH in water and temperature the common experimental factors. Extraction time was also a factor considered for optimization in MAE. A detailed chemical characterization of pigments was performed by HPLC–DAD–MS/MS (high performance liquid chromatography–diode array detector–mass spectrometry), being fucoxanthin the main compound extracted. Optimum extraction conditions were 50°C, 100% EtOH, 20min for PLE, while optimum conditions for MAE were 30°C, 100% EtOH and 2min. Both technologies extract fucoxanthin as a main compound but higher recoveries were achieved using PLE due to a higher extraction yield. In addition, both MAE and PLE extracts contained different lipid classes potentially enriched in EPA, given an added-value to the extracts.
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Southeast Asian urban peripheries have recently become destinations for the global capital influx. In this region, governments are promoting investments in the peripheries through planning and development of special economic zones. The implications of the ongoing transformations of the peripheries on people and ecosystems are least investigated. This study examines landscape change in one of the largest SEZs in Southeast Asia, Iskandar Malaysia—from investors, people and landscape data points of view. The short time changes (2006 and 2010) in the composition of urban built-up areas, mangroves, forests, and agricultural landscapes were calculated using GIS and FRAGSTATS. The study also used the Rasch model to measure public perceptions on the implications of the changing urban peripheries. On the other hand, the analysis of investors' advertorial handbills and leaflets revealed their views on the transformation of landscapes of urban peripheries. Thus, between 2006 and 2010, urban built-up areas increased by 25.8, and this has caused agricultural landscapes to decline by 15.5% while mangroves and forests decreased by 12.4% and 3.9% respectively. Unsurprisingly, the public showed widespread dissatisfaction with the effects of the recent investments on the functions of landscapes in urban peripheries.According to the study findings, investors showed apathy towards protection of critical ecosystems. Indeed, the new land development activities explicitly promote exclusion of the poor members of the society.
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Clinical reasoning can be difficult to teach to pre-professional physiotherapy students due to their lack of clinical experience. It may be that tools such as clinical prediction rules (CPRs) could aid the process, but there has been little investigation into their use in physiotherapy clinical education. This study aimed to determine the perceptions and experiences of physiotherapy students regarding CPRs, and whether they are learning about CPRs on clinical placement.
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Three new arylbenzofurans, 7-methoxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3-methyl-5-(3-prenyl)-benzofuran (1), 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3-methyl-5-(3-prenyl)-benzofuran-7-ol (2), 2-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-methyl-5-(3-prenyl)benzofuran-7-ol (3), along with four known arylbenzofurans (4–7) were isolated from the fermentation products of an endophytic Phomopsis sp. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques. In addition, compounds 1–7 were tested for their anti-tobacco mosaic virus (anti-TMV) activity. The results showed that compound 3 exhibited obvious anti-TMV activity with inhibition rate of 35.2% better than that of positive control (31.8%). The other compounds also showed potential anti-TMV activity with inhibition rates in the range of 18.6–25.7%, respectively.
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At present, there is an insufficient evidence base to evaluate the effectiveness of physiotherapy following total hip replacement (THR). This study evaluated the effectiveness of a physiotherapy-supervised functional exercise programme between 12 and 18 weeks following THR. These time-points coincide with increased functional demand in patients.
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Restoring independence in the sit-to-stand (STS) task is an important objective for stroke rehabilitation. It is not known if a particular intervention, strength training or therapy focused on movement performance is more likely to improve STS recovery. This study aimed to compare STS outcomes from functional strength training, movement performance therapy and conventional therapy.
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Pre-operative inspiratory muscle training has been shown to decrease the incidence of postoperative pneumonia and length of hospital stay in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). This study investigated if this decrease acted as a mediator on the time course of quality of life.
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