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The structural framework and tectonic evolution of the sedimentary basins along the eastern margin of the South American continent are closely associated with the tectonic framework and crustal heterogeneities inherited from the Precambrian basement. However, the role of NW-SE and NNW-SSE structures observed at the outcropping basement in Southeastern Brazil and its impact over the development of those basins have not been closely investigated. In the continental region adjacent to the Campos Basin, we described a geological feature with NNW-SSE orientation, named in this paper as the Alegre Fracture Zone (AFZ), which is observed in the onshore basement and can be projected to the offshore basin. The main goal of this work was to study this structural lineament and its influence on the tectonic evolution of the central portion of the Campos Basin and adjacent mainland. The onshore area was investigated through remote sensing data joint with field observations, and the offshore area was studied through the interpretation of 2-D seismic data calibrated by geophysical well logs. We concluded that the AFZ occurs in both onshore and offshore as a brittle deformation zone formed by multiple sets of fractures that originated in the Cambrian and were reactivated mainly as normal faults during the rift phase and in the Cenozoic. In the Campos Basin, the AFZ delimitates the western side of the Corvina-Parati Low, composing a complex fault system with the NE-SW faults and the NW-SE transfer faults.
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Peat bogs consist of a heterogeneous substrate whose physical characteristics vary in accordance with botanical composition, inorganic sediment content and the degree of organic matter (OM) decomposition. Although rare in the tropical zone of South America, they can form in places where temperature and drainage favor the accumulation of OM. Due to the anoxic character of the environment, OM remains preserved, providing a valuable record of the climate during its genesis. In the Serra do Espinhaço, bogs can be found buried under sand deposits and given the difficulty of mapping such deposits by conventional methods, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) was used in their location and the study of the relationship between peat bog genesis and bedrock setting. GPR data revealed blocks of quartzite located perpendicular to the drainage pattern; which are assumed to partially restrict the water flow and maintain wet conditions upstream, favoring the development of hygrophilous vegetation and the accumulation of OM. Radiocarbon dating showed that buried bogs are contemporary to the deeper parts of non-buried peats and that there is a strong correlation between their stratigraphy and climatic conditions. Between 30,250 and 12,400years before present (BP), the conditions were favorable for the accumulation of OM; between 12,400 and 7900years BP, erosive processes caused sand deposition in the depression. Favorable conditions for deposition of OM resumed around 7900years BP and lasted until about 3300years BP. Over the past 2600years the climate has been similar to the present, with three brief periods favorable to OM deposition.
Data Types:
  • Geospatial Data
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Fjord systems represent hotspots of primary productivity and organic carbon burial. However, the factors which control the primary production in mid-latitude fjords are poorly understood. In this context, results from the first fine-scale measurements of bio-oceanographic features in the water column of fjords associated with the Strait of Magellan are presented. A submersible fluorescence probe (FP) was used to measure the Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration in situ, along with conductivity, temperature, hydrostatic pressure (depth) and dissolved oxygen (CTD-O2) of the water column. The Austral spring results of 14 FP-CTD-O2 profiles were used to define the vertical and horizontal patches of the fluorescent pigment distribution and their spatial relations with respect to the observed hydrographic features. Three zones with distinct water structures were defined. In all zones, the ‘brown’ spectral group (diatoms and dinoflagellates) predominated accounting for >80wt. % of the phytoplankton community. Thin layers with high Chl-a concentration were detected in 50% of the profiles. These layers harbored a substantial amount (30-65wt. %) of the phytoplankton biomass. Stratification was positively correlated to the occurrence of Chl-a thin layers. In stable and highly stratified water columns the integrated Chl-a concentration was higher and frequently located within thin layers whereas well mixed water columns displayed lower values and more homogeneous vertical distribution of Chl-a. These results indicate that mixing/stability processes are important factors accounting to the vertical distribution of Chl-a in Magellan fjords.
Data Types:
  • Geospatial Data
  • Image
Facing increasingly serious water pollution, the Chinese government is changing the environmental management strategy from solely pollutant concentration control to a Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program, and water quality models are increasingly being applied to determine the allowable pollutant load in the TMDL. Despite the frequent use of models, few studies have focused on how parameter uncertainty in water quality models affect the allowable pollutant loads in the TMDL program, particularly for complicated and high-dimension water quality models. Uncertainty analysis for such models is limited by time-consuming simulation and high-dimensionality and nonlinearity in parameter spaces. In this study, an allowable pollutant load calculation platform was established using the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC), which is a widely applied hydrodynamic-water quality model. A Bayesian approach, i.e. the DiffeRential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) algorithm, which is a high-efficiency, multi-chain Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method, was applied to assess the effects of parameter uncertainty on the water quality model simulations and its influence on the allowable pollutant load calculation in the TMDL program. Miyun Reservoir, which is the most important surface drinking water source for Beijing, suffers from eutrophication and was selected as a case study. The relations between pollutant loads and water quality indicators are obtained through a graphical method in the simulation platform. Ranges of allowable pollutant loads were obtained according to the results of parameter uncertainty analysis, i.e. Total Organic Carbon (TOC): 581.5–1030.6t·yr−1; Total Phosphorus (TP): 23.3–31.0t·yr−1; and Total Nitrogen (TN): 480–1918.0t·yr−1. The wide ranges of allowable pollutant loads reveal the importance of parameter uncertainty analysis in a TMDL program for allowable pollutant load calculation and margin of safety (MOS) determination. The sources of uncertainty are discussed and ways to reduce the uncertainties are proposed.
Data Types:
  • Geospatial Data
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  • Tabular Data
We present an interdisciplinary study of the geomorphology, sedimentology and physical oceanography of the Alboran Sea (south-western Mediterranean Sea) to evaluate the potential role of bottom currents in shaping the Spanish and Moroccan continental margins and adjacent basins. Bathymetric and seismic data have allowed the recognition of the contourite deposits, including depositional (plastered, sheeted, channel-related, mounded confined, elongated and separated drifts), erosive (moats, channels and furrows) and mixed (terraces and scarps) features. Hydrographic data offer new insights into the distribution of the Mediterranean water masses, and reveal that bottom circulation of the Western Intermediate Water (WIW) and the Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW) interact with the Spanish slope, and the Western Mediterranean Deep Water (WMDW) on the Moroccan slope, Spanish base-of-slope and deep basins. The integration of distinct datasets and approaches allows a proposal of a new sedimentary model for the Alboran Sea that details the significance of bottom current processes in shaping deep-sea morphology. This model considers the bottom circulation of water masses governs physiography, that interface positions of water-masses with contrasting densities sculpt terraces on a regional scale, and that the morphologic obstacles play an essential role in the local control of processes and water-mass distributions. Our findings demonstrate the pivotal role of bottom water circulation in seafloor shaping and sedimentary stacking patterns for continental margins, establishing a new outlook for future studies of deep marine sedimentation.
Data Types:
  • Geospatial Data
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  • Tabular Data
  • Document
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy may be linked to fetal neurological complications that include brain damage and microcephaly. How the viral infection relates to fetal brain malformations is unknown. This study analyzes ZIKV polyprotein for peptide sharing with human proteins that, when altered, associate with microcephaly and brain calcifications. Results highlight a vast viral versus human peptide commonality that, in particular, involves centriolar and centrosomal components canonically cataloged as microcephaly proteins, i.e., C2CD3, CASC5, CP131, GCP4, KIF2A, STIL, and TBG. Likewise, a search for ZIKV peptide occurrences in human proteins linked to Guillain-Barré-like syndromes also show a high, unexpected level of peptide sharing. Of note, further analyses using the Immune Epitope DataBase (IEDB) resource show that many of the shared peptides are endowed with immunological potential. The data indicate that immune reactions following ZIKV infection might be a considerable source of crossreactions with brain-specific proteins and might contribute to the ZIKV-associated neuropathologic sequelae.
Data Types:
  • Geospatial Data
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Radiocarbon (14C) dating remains the predominant method to build robust chronologies from peat deposits for paleoclimate reconstruction. Although it is widely known that the 14C content of different chemical fractions in peat varies, this heterogeneity is not fully accounted for while constructing age-depth models. Since peat is a complex and heterogeneous matrix, we tried to characterize this uncertainty on our 14C dates by experimenting with pre-treatment procedures on peat sampled from a high elevation site in southern India, where reliable and continuous records of paleoenvironments are scarce. Dated to ∼40 kyr, the Sandynallah peat accumulation in valleys >2000 m asl in the Nilgiris, Western Ghats, remains an important source of paleoenvironmental information. We subsampled 2 peat cores (labelled Cores 1 and 2) from this site at 1 cm and 2 cm resolution, respectively, and obtained 14C dates using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) for 73 Core 1 and 40 Core 2 samples. The results indicate that the uncertainty (possibly due to sample heterogeneity; henceforth called external error) for each date is at least tenfold the internal error (reported from the AMS). When this external error estimate was included as an added variance to the internal error on the radiocarbon dates, the numerous minor date reversals on deposits up to about 30 kyr were better explained for by the age-depth model than when only the internal error was used. The remaining large date reversals on deposits older than about 30 kyr are consistent with previous studies from the Sandynallah basin and, hence, could correspond to large deposit level changes/fluctuations. Based on these results we argue that using internal error as the total uncertainty associated with a date given by AMS is insufficient, resulting in models of high precision over accuracy. The internal error should be used in conjunction with a reliable estimate of external error in an age-depth model for more realistic dating of paleoclimatic events.
Data Types:
  • Geospatial Data
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  • Tabular Data
Tropical forest conversion to agricultural land leads to a strong decrease of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks. While the decrease of the soil C sequestration function is easy to measure, the impacts of SOC losses on soil fertility remain unclear. Especially the assessment of the sensitivity of other fertility indicators as related to ecosystem services suffers from a lack of clear methodology. We developed a new approach to assess the sensitivity of soil fertility indicators and tested it on biological and chemical soil properties affected by rainforest conversion to plantations. The approach is based on (non-)linear regressions between SOC losses and fertility indicators normalized to their level in a natural ecosystem. Biotic indicators (basal respiration, microbial biomass, acid phosphatase), labile SOC pools (dissolved organic carbon and light fraction) and nutrients (total N and available P) were measured in Ah horizons from rainforests, jungle rubber, rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) plantations located on Sumatra. The negative impact of land-use changes on all measured indicators increased in the following sequence: forest<jungle rubber<rubber<oil palm. The basal respiration, microbial biomass and nutrients were resistant to SOC losses, whereas the light fraction was lost stronger than SOC. Microbial C use efficiency was independent on land use. The resistance of C availability for microorganisms to SOC losses suggests that a decrease of SOC quality was partly compensated by litter input and a relative enrichment by nutrients. However, the relationship between the basal respiration and SOC was non-linear; i.e. negative impact on microbial activity strongly increased with SOC losses. Therefore, a small decrease of C content under oil palm compared to rubber plantations yielded a strong drop in microbial activity. Consequently, management practices mitigating SOC losses in oil palm plantations would strongly increase soil fertility and ecosystem stability. We conclude that the new approach enables quantitatively assessing the sensitivity and resistance of diverse soil functions to land-use changes and can thus be used to assess resilience of agroecosystems with various use intensities.
Data Types:
  • Geospatial Data
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  • Tabular Data
Manmade climate change has expressed a plethora of complex effects on Earth's biogeochemical compartments. Climate change may also affect the mobilisation of natural metal sources, with potential ecological consequences beyond mountains' geographical limits; however, this question has remained largely unexplored. We investigated this by analysing a number of key climatic factors in relationship with trace metal accumulation in the sediment core of a Pyrenean lake. The sediment metal contents showed increasing accumulation trend over time, and their levels varied in step with recent climate change. The findings further revealed that a rise in the elevation of freezing level, a general increase in the frequency of drier periods, changes in the frequency of winter freezing days and a reducing snow cover since the early 1980s, together are responsible for the observed variability and augmented accumulation of trace metals. Our results provide clear evidence of increased mobilisation of natural metal sources - an overlooked effect of climate change on the environment. With further alterations in climate equilibrium predicted over the ensuing decades, it is likely that mountain catchments in metamorphic areas may become significant sources of trace metals, with potentially harmful consequences for the wider environment.
Data Types:
  • Geospatial Data
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This study presents a comparison and integration of three methods commonly used to estimate the amount of forest ecosystem carbon (C) available for storage. In particular, we examine the representation of living above- and below-ground biomass change (net accumulation) using plot-level biometry and repeat airborne laser scanning (ALS) of three dimensional forest plot structure. These are compared with cumulative net CO2 fluxes (net ecosystem production, NEP) from eddy covariance (EC) over a six-year period within a jack pine chronosequence of four stands (~94, 30, 14 and 3years since establishment from 2005) located in central Saskatchewan, Canada. Combining the results of the two methods yield valuable observations on the partitioning of C within ecosystems. Subtracting total living biomass C accumulation from NEP results in a residual that represents change in soil and litter C storage. When plotted against time for the stands investigated, the curve produced is analogous to the soil C dynamics described in Covington (1981). Here, ALS biomass accumulation exceeds EC-based NEP measured in young stands, with the residual declining with age as stands regenerate and litter decomposition stabilizes. During the 50–70year age-period, NEP and live biomass accumulation come into balance, with the soil and litter pools of stands 70–100years post-disturbance becoming a net store of C. Biomass accumulation was greater in 2008–2011 compared to 2005–2008, with the smallest increase in the 94-year-old “old jack pine” stand and greatest in the 14-year-old “harvested jack pine 1994” stand, with values of 1.4 (±3.2) tCha−1 and 12.0 (±1.6) tCha−1, respectively. The efficiency with which CO2 was stored in accumulated biomass was lowest in the youngest and oldest stands, but peaked during rapid regeneration following harvest (14-year-old stand). The analysis highlights that the primary source of uncertainty in the data integration workflow is in the calculation of biomass expansion factors, and this aspect of the workflow needs to be implemented with caution to avoid large error propagations. We suggest that the adoption of integrated ALS, in situ and atmospheric flux monitoring frameworks is needed to improve spatio-temporal partitioning of C balance components at sub-decadal scale within rapidly changing forest ecosystems and for use in national carbon accounting programs.
Data Types:
  • Geospatial Data
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  • Tabular Data
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