Contributors:Littman, Justin, Wrubel, Laura, Kerchner, Daniel
This dataset contains the tweet ids of approximately 280 million tweets related to the 2016 United States presidential election. They were collected between July 13, 2016 and November 10, 2016 from the Twitter API using Social Feed Manager.
These tweet ids are broken up into 12 collections. Each collection was collected either from the GET statuses/user_timeline method of the Twitter REST API or the POST statuses/filter method of the Twitter Stream API. The collections are:
Candidates and key election hashtags (Twitter filter): election-filter[1-6].txt
Democratic candidates (Twitter user timeline): democratic-candidate-timelines.txt
Democratic Convention (Twitter filter): democratic-convention-filter.txt
Democratic Party (Twitter user timeline): democratic-party-timelines.txt
Election Day (Twitter filter): election-day.txt
First presidential debate (Twitter filter): first-debate.txt
GOP Convention (Twitter filter): republican-convention-filter.txt
Republican candidates (Twitter user timeline): republican-candidate-timelines.txt
Republican Party (Twitter user timeline): republican-party-timelines.txt
Second presidential debate (Twitter filter): second-debate.txt
Third presidential debate (Twitter filter): third-debate.txt
Vice Presidential debate (Twitter filter): vp-debate.txt
There is also a README.txt file for each collection containing additional documentation on how it was collected.
The GET statuses/lookup method supports retrieving the complete tweet for a tweet id (known as hydrating). Tools such as Twarc or Hydrator can be used to hydrate tweets. When hydrating be aware that:
Twitter limits hydration to 900 requests of 100 tweet ids per 15 minute window per set of user credentials. This works out to 8,640,000 tweets per day, so hydrating this entire dataset will take 32 days.
The Twitter API will not return tweets that have been deleted or belong to accounts that have been suspended, deleted, or made private. You should expect a large number of these tweets to be unavailable.
There may be duplicate tweets across collections. Also, according to the Twitter documentation, duplicate tweets are possible for tweets collected from the Twitter filter stream.
For tweets collected from the Twitter filter stream, this is not a complete set of tweets that match the filter. Gaps may exist because:
Twitter limits the number of tweets returned by the filter at any point in time.
Social Feed Manager stops and starts the Twitter filter stream every 30 minutes.
In Social Feed Manager, collecting is turned off while a user is making changes to the collection criteria.
There were some operational issues, e.g., network interruptions, during the collection period.
Since some of the terms used to collect from the Twitter filter stream were broad (e.g., “election”), it may contain tweets from elections other than the U.S. presidential election, including state elections, local elections, or elections in other countries.
Per Twitter’s Developer Policy, tweet ids may be publicly shared; tweets may not.
Questions about this dataset can be sent to firstname.lastname@example.org. George Washington University researchers should contact us for access to the tweets.
This work is supported by grant #NARDI-14-50017-14 from the National Historical Publications and Records Commission.
Replication data for "No Need to Watch: How the Effects of Partisan Media Can Spread via Inter-Personal Discussion"
Contains replication files for Julia Gray and Jeffrey Kucik manuscript "Leadership Turnover and the Durability of International Trade Commitments."
Contributors:Holbein, John B., Hillygus, D. Sunshine
Recent research has cast doubt on the potential for many electoral reforms to increase voter turnout. In this paper we examine the effectiveness of preregistration laws, which allow young citizens to register before being eligible to vote. We use two empirical approaches to evaluate the impact of preregistration on youth turnout. First, we implement difference-in-difference and lag models to bracket the causal effect of preregistration implementation using the 2000-2012 Current Population Survey. Second, focusing on the state of Florida, we leverage a discontinuity based on date of birth to estimate the effect of increased preregistration exposure on the turnout of young registrants. In both approaches we find preregistration increases voter turnout, with equal effectiveness for various subgroups in the electorate. More broadly, observed pat- terns suggest that the campaign context and supporting institutions may help to determine when and if electoral reforms are effective.
Contributors:Butler, Daniel, Homola, Jonathan
This provides the files necessary to replicate "An Empirical Justification for the Use of Racially Distinctive Names to Signal Race in Experiments."
Contributors:Holman, Mirya, Merolla, Jennifer, Zechmeister, Elizabeth
Data and replication information for Can Experience Overcome Stereotypes in Times of Terror Threat?
Research on evaluations of leaders has frequently found that female leaders, particularly Democrats, receive lower ratings in times of national security crisis. However, less is known about countervailing factors. We contend that partisanship and leadership experience in relevant domains are two factors that can counteract the negative effects of terrorist threat on evaluations of female political leaders. To test this expectation, we implemented a national study in 2012 containing terrorist threat and non-threat conditions, and then asked participants to evaluate political leaders. The results show that Republican leaders, including women, are unaffected by terrorist threat; in contrast, Democratic leaders are punished during times of terrorist threat, but this negative effect is smaller for then-Secretary of State Hillary Clinton compared to Nancy Pelosi, who lacks similar experience. In short, Republican partisanship is a strong countervailing factor, while leadership experience in national security more modestly countervails.
Though many scholars study the formation of policy, less attention is given to its endurance. In this paper, I seek to determine what contributes to the longevity of policy by examining the case of presidential unilateralism. While scholars widely recognize presidents’ ability to unilaterally make policy with executive orders, they largely do not account for how these same orders can be easily changed by subsequent administrations. To address this deficiency, I develop a theory of executive order duration based on both time-invariant characteristics of the order and time-variant changes in the political climate it faces. Using survival analysis to examine all orders revoked between 1937 and 2013, I find support for the theory. This study has implications for understanding the endurance of executive orders and other policy instruments as part of the law as well as understanding the strategic actions of policymakers given the transient nature of these tools.
Contributors:Rudolph, Lukas, Kuhn, Patrick M.
How do natural disasters affect electoral participation? The existing social science literature offers contradicting predictions. On the one hand, a considerable literature in sociology and psychology suggests that traumatic events can inspire pro-social behavior, which might increase turnout. On the other hand, political science has long held that economic resources are crucial ingredients for civic engagement. Consequently, natural disasters should reduce electoral participation. We show how these distinct views can be jointly analysed within the Riker-Ordeshook model of voting. This paper then reports results on the impact of the 2002 and 2013 floods in Germany on turnout in federal and state elections in Saxony and Bavaria, conducted few weeks after the floods. Analyzing community level turnout data, and drawing on a difference-in-differences framework, we find that flood exposure has a consistent negative effect on turnout. This indicates that the increase in the costs of voting outweighed any increase in political engagement in our case and stands in contrast to findings from developing contexts, where flood management was convincingly linked to electoral participation.