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Raw data for Salmonella expresses foreign genes during infection by degrading their silencer
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Dominance and prestige, as two distinct status-attaining qualities, are present in modern-day leaders at various levels of social hierarchies to various degrees. From an evolutionary perspective, we speculate that such leadership qualities are implicitly linked to the leadership preferences of followers in the environments where they are more effective or necessary. Moreover, individuals’ life-history strategy might moderate the effect of some contextual factors, such as environmental danger, on leadership preferences of dominant versus prestigious leaders. We proposed three hypotheses. First, humans should associate dominant leadership with danger, and associate prestigious leadership with safety (H1). Secondly, individual differences in leadership preference should reflect individuals’ life-history strategies such that those with fast life-history strategies should consider dominance-based leadership more positively than those with slow life-history strategies (H2). Thirdly, the associations between fast life-history strategy and preference for dominant leaders should be stronger in dangerous situations than in situations without danger (H3). We conducted three studies to test the aforementioned hypotheses. Specifically, Study 1a used an Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) task to assess the relative strength of the implicit association between leadership qualities (dominance versus prestige) and situational contexts (danger versus safety). This allowed us to examine whether there is a general association between dominance (prestige) and danger (safety). In Study 1b, another IAT task was devised to examine the link between leadership qualities and subjective evaluations (positive versus negative). We also examined whether the strength of the IAT effects in both Studies 1a and 1b correlates with participants’ self-reported life-history strategy and socioeconomic status. Finally, Study 2 assessed participants’ leadership preferences and expectations in response to four hypothetic scenarios after priming participants with danger or control conditions using an imagination procedure. This study also measured participants’ life-history strategy, which is seen as a potential moderator of the effects of situational danger on their leadership evaluations. The results showed that (1) participants implicitly associated danger with dominance, and safety with prestige (Study 1a); (2) the relative strength of the implicit association between positive evaluation and prestige is positively correlated with participants’ slow life-history strategy (Study 1b). In a third experiment (Study 2), we found that self-reported life-history strategy also moderated the effects of experimentally manipulated danger on leadership preferences. The association between dangerous environments and dominant leadership preference was stronger for participants with fast life-history strategies than those with slow life-history strategies.
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This dataset includes the daily meterological series over China, which is primarly downloaded from the China Meteorological Data Service Center and then be corrected and temporally interpolated by our group to fill the missing data. The hydrological observations include daily streamflow series over several stations, and have been quality control and error observations are detected and flaged.
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Here are all the raw data about the study of "Decoding and Systematization of Medical Imaging Features of Multiple Human Malignancies". Including the proposed correlation atlas to clarify the relationship between medical imaging features and human malignancies, and the CT image dataset of 1000 lung cancer patients for discovering the pattern of distribution of values of the texture features and explaining the visual difference of different image feature values, and all of the source code of this study.
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The current study used confirmatory factor analysis to compare fit of the two-factor and bifactor models of the original and two short versions of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS) among a large sample of Chinese-speaking adults. The current sample consisted of 696 college or university students and 706 adults who were not currently in school. In order to examine the IUS' psychometric properties and validity, all participants completed the full-length IUS (n = 1402) and Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ; n = 1402), while some completed the neuroticism subscale of the Revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Short Scale for Chinese (EPQ-N; n = 1026), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI; n = 1026), Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale-7 (GAD-7; n = 1026), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI; n = 838). All measures were in Chinese and were delivered via online survey methods.
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The main hypothesis of this work is that silicon dioxide nanofluids can reduce the work of adhesion required to pull aromatic and alkane functional groups from quartz and feldspar mineral substrates. A secondary hypothesis is that the adhesion work is directly related to adhesion force - both of which are measured on AFM. The data collected shows that adhesion force decreases as nanofluid concentration increases up to 0.5 wt% after which it begins to decrease. Mean adhesion force (pN) with error margin was obtained from histograms generated during atomic force microscope (AFM) measurements. The measurements consist of 1024 force curves per test. Standard deviation values are also included. A 2-D plot can reveal the trend of adhesion force with nanofluid concentration. Similarly, a linear relationship seems to exist between adhesion force and adhesion work (aJ), but the latter seems to also depend on scan rate and displacement. Mean adhesion work measurements were obtained in similar manner to force curves. All associated data are available in the spreadsheet named" AFM data". All of the 1,024 force curves obtained per test were carefully analyzed and a single force curve was selected to describe the role of intermolecular forces. As presented in the document "AFM force curves", a plot consists of two portions: approach (red line) and retract (blue line). The vertical axis represents adhesion force (force, pN) and horizontal axis represents vertical displacement of probe/tip from substrate (z snr, microns). The adhesion histograms calculated via post-processors are more relevant for quantitative interpretations (adhesion work and force) than the single force curves, which are more useful for qualitative interpretations such as type of intermolecular forces governing substrate/tip/medium interaction. The approach line is used to predict the presence of Van Der Waal's force and electrostatic repulsion while the retract line is used to predict dominance of capillary adhesion and binding force; the reader is referred to the reference provided below for exhaustive details. Indeed, the force curves can be used to mathematically model these surface forces, but it will require more rigorous topographic imaging and careful examination of cantilever displacement as it approaches and retracts from the surface. This is beyond the scope of this work.
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This dataset empirically investigated the comprehensive model related to post-purchase behavior regarding online shopping in North Cyprus. The dataset has collected via a self-administered questionnaire at Girne American University. Then, the dataset evaluated by using 354 participants. In which several techniques used for hypothesis testing, and structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied using IBM (SPSS and AMOS).
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Supplemental to figure 1 of "Analysis of a limb-specific regulatory element in the promoter of the link protein gene." This supplemented figure 1 shows the details of the X-gal staining from embryos containing the -1020 and -690 nt Hapln-lacZ transgenes. Fig. 1. Link protein gene promoter constructs show in vivo expression patterns in either the skeleton or limb/genitalia. (A) Two different link protein promoter fragments consisting of the −1020 and −690 nt regions were tested in transgenic mice. (B) A representative E15.5 mouse transiently expressing the −1020 promoter region showed only X-gal staining in appendicular and axial cartilaginous skeletal tissues. A dark background was used to provide contrast to the photograph to allow easy visualization of the discrete expression in cartilage sites. (B-1) Sectioning showing staining in the tibia after X-gal and eosin counter-staining. (B-2) Immunofluorescence using antibody to Hapln1. (C) and (D) The shorter −690 promoter region demonstrated high-level expression in the limb and genitalia as shown in two representative mouse embryos. As shown, embryos showed variability of X-gal staining in the limb and hind paw regions. The embryos in C and D were dissected and either the paws (C1, D1; 5x) or genital tubercle (C2, D-2;20x) were examined by tissue-sectioning and counter-staining with eosin. In paws and genitalia mesenchymal cells show X-gal staining underneath the un-stained epithelial cells.
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This paper aims at verifying if population aging promotes or hinders macroeconomic stability. The dataset contains information of 146 economies between 1996 and 2016, grouped in five blocks of years as described in the article. The Stata do.file contains the commands used in the estimation of the econometric models.
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Early-life status epilepticus produces a high-functioning autism-like phenotype: deficit in social interaction and vocalization, enhanced anxiety, no cognitive impairment and altered functional connectivity within the hippocampus (CA3-CA1) and between the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. In this study, we used a social memory paradigm to evaluate social memory and social motivation, high demand cognitive tasks (Barnes and Octagonal mazes) to evaluate working memory, reference memory and cognitive flexibility followed by gene and protein expression of molecules related to social behavior, reward system and synapse function. At postnatal day 9, male Wistar rats were subjected to pilocarpine-induced early-life status epilepticus (380mg/kg, i.p.) and the control group received 0.9% saline (0.1 ml/10 g). In adulthood, animals were probed to social recognition memory and cognitive function followed by gene and protein expressions in hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala and striatum. In social recognition paradigm, experimental animals spent lower time interacting with the same conspecific, with no enhancement as the familiar animal was replaced by a novel one. In training phase of Barnes maze, the latency to get into the escape cage did not differ between groups. In test phase, as the escape cage has been removed, the time to reach the escape hole did not differ between groups, but the experimental group distributed more evenly the time exploring the peripheral zones the maze, rather than the control group that stayed next to the target hole. In training (TRP) and test phases (TP) of the octagonal maze task, both groups spent similar time to complete the task, but the experimental group exhibited fewer working memory errors during TP with no difference in reference memory errors. The gene expression for oxytocin, oxytocin receptors, dopamine receptors (DR1 and DR2), synapsin and NT3 did not change in experimental group that exhibited higher level of oxytocin in hypothalamus and lower expression of its receptor in hippocampus.
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