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T follicular helper (Tfh) cells play a pivotal role in germinal center reactions, which requires Bcl6 transcription factor. To analyze their relationships with other effector T cell lineages and their stability in vivo, we developed and analyzed a new Bcl6 reporter mouse alone or together with other lineage reporter systems. Assisted with genome-wide transcriptome analysis, we show substantial plasticity of T cell differentiation in the early phase of immune response. At this stage, CXCR5 appears to be expressed in a Bcl6-independent manner. Once Bcl6 is highly expressed, Tfh cells can persist in vivo and some of them develop into memory cells. Together, our results indicate Bcl6 as a bona fide marker for Tfh polarized program. Three group of samples, with 2 biological replicates within each group and total of 6 samples were analyzed.
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Salamander limb regeneration is dependent upon tissue interactions that are local to the amputation site. Communication among limb epidermis, peripheral nerves, and mesenchyme coordinate cell migration, cell proliferation, and tissue patterning to generate a blastema, a mass of progenitor cells that forms missing limb structures. An outstanding question is how molecular cross-talk between these tissues gives rise to the regeneration blastema. To identify genes associated with epidermis-nerve-mesenchymal interactions during limb regeneration, we examined histological and transcriptional changes during the first week following injury in the wound epidermis and subjacent cells between three injury types; 1) a flank wound on the side of the animal that will not regenerate a limb, 2) a denervated limb that will not regenerate a limb, and 3) an innervated limb that will regenerate a limb. Early, histological and transcriptional changes were highly similar between the three injury types, presumably because a common wound-healing program is employed across anatomical locations. However, we identified transcripts that were enriched in the limb compared to the flank and are associated with vertebrate limb development. Many of these genes were activated before blastema outgrowth and in situ hybridization showed that some of these genes were expressed in specific tissue types including the epidermis, peripheral nerve, and mesenchyme. We also identified a relatively small group of transcripts that were more highly expressed in innervated limbs versus denervated limbs. These transcripts encode for proteins that are associated with myelination of peripheral nerves, epidermal maintenance, and cell proliferation, suggesting that denervation affects myelinating Schwann cells, epidermal cell function, and proliferation of mesenchymal cells. Overall, our study identifies limb-specific and nerve-dependent genes that are upstream of regenerative growth, and thus promising candidates for the regulation of blastema formation. We used microarray analysis to determine the gene expression changes that take place during limb regeneration, flank wound healing, and an denervated amputated limb. Epidermal tissue and cells adhered to the epidermis were collected as samples. Two harvested samples was pooled for each animal. Four biological replicates were collected from uninjured epidermis (D0) and at 1, 3, and 7 days post injury.
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Small intestinal innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are known to regulate intestinal epithelial cell homeostasis and to help prevent pathogenic bacterial infections, by producing IL-22. However, other functions of these cells and the lineal relationship between ILCs and lymphoid or myeloid cells have not been clear. We performed a global gene expression analysis to examine which genes are highly expressed by small intestinal ILCs (Lin-c-Kit+Sca-1- cells) compared with non-ILCs (Lin-c-Kit-Sca-1- cells). To examine the gene expression profiles of ILCs within the small intestinal lamina propria (LP), we isolated Lingeage (Lin)-c-Kit+Sca-1- cells [consisting of NKp46+ ILC22 (Lin-c-Kit+Sca-1-NKp46+ cells) and LTi-like ILC (Lin-c-Kit+Sca-1-CD4+ cells)] as the ILC population, and Lin-c-Kit-Sca-1- cells as the non-ILC population, from the small intestinal LP of 8 week-old mice by FACS, then compared the gene expression profiles between these two populations by microarray analysis.
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Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) thiol oxidases initiate a disulfide relay to oxidatively-fold secreted proteins. We found that combined loss-of-function mutations in genes encoding the ER thiol oxidases ERO1alpha, ERO1beta and PRDX4, compromised the extracellular matrix in mice and interfered with the intracellular maturation of procollagen. These severe abnormalities were associated with an unexpectedly-modest delay in disulfide bond formation in secreted proteins but a profound, five-fold lower procollagen 4 hydroxyproline content and enhanced cysteinyl sulfenic acid modification of ER proteins. Tissue ascorbic acid content was lower in mutant mice and ascorbic acid supplementation improved procollagen maturation and lowered sulfenic acid content, in vivo. In vitro, the presence of a sulfenic acid donor accelerated the oxidative inactivation of ascorbate by an H2O2 generating system. Compromised ER disulfide relay thus exposes protein thiols to competing oxidation to sulfenic acid, resulting in depletion of ascorbic acid, impaired procollagen proline 4-hydroxylation and a non-canonical form of scurvy. double and triple mutants and wild type
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The goal of this experiment was to compare gene expression after t-RA treatment in cells with or without the presence of the PolyADP ribose Glycohydrolase protein (PARG) Microarray analysis of gene expression before or 3 hours after t-RA treatment in Hela cells expressing an shRNA control or shRNA against PARG
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dMyc is a conserved transcription factor that controls growth and proliferation by regulating its target genes. We used Affymetrix microarray to identify and classify targets of dMyc during Drosophila embryogenesis. RNA was extracted from 0-24 hour old Drosophila embryos in control (Gal 4 expressing animals) and Myc+ (flies over-expressing dMyc under UAS enhancer) to identify genomic targets od dMyc during embryogenesis
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Colon cancer cell lines with partial sensitivity to the BRAF inhibitor PLX4720 were grown in increasing concentration of the drug to develop acquired resistance. Gene expression was performed for comparison of the resistant clones to the parental lines. Colon cancer cell lines with partial sensitivity to the BRAF inhibitor PLX4720 were grown in increasing concentration of the drug to develop acquired resistance. Gene expression was performed for comparison of the resistant clones to the parental lines.
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We applied a combination of Methyl-CpG Immunoprecipitation (MCIp) and Human CpG Island microarrays to identify aberrant DNA methylation in eight low-grade breast invasive carcinomas and two pre-invasive breast tumors against ten normal breast tissues. 10 breast tumor samples (8 invasive, 2 pre-invasive) and 10 normal breast tissues, paired randomly (except Array 10: matched pair)
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The goal was to study the role of Hlx in hematopoiesis. Sorted Lin-Kit+Sca-1+ cells from wild-type FVB/nJ bone marrow were infected with control (pCAD-IRES-GFP) or Hlx lentivirus (pCAD-IRES-GFP-Hlx) and cultured for 2 days in Iscove’s modified Dulbecco’s medium (IMDM) containing FBS, mIL-3, mIL-6 and mSCF with lentiviral supernatants in the presence of 8ug/ml polybrene. Subsequently, GFP+ cells were sorted by FACS and RNA was prepared. Three replicates of each, control vector transduced and HLX-transduced cells were used.
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