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This study evaluates effectiveness of driver education teaching greater fuel efficiency (Eco-Driving) in a real world setting in Australia. The driving behaviour, measured in fuel use (litres per 100km of travel) of a sample of 1056 private drivers was monitored over seven months. 853 drivers received education in eco-driving techniques and 203 were monitored as a control group. A simple experimental design was applied comparing the pre and post training fuel use of the treated sample compared to a control sample. This study found the driver education led to a statistically significant reduction in fuel use of 4.6% or 0.51 litres per 100km compared to the control group.
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Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common degenerative joint disease and a growing health problem affecting more than half of the population over the age of 65. It is characterized by inflammation in the cartilage and synovium, resulting in the loss of joint structure and progressive damage to the cartilage. Many pro-inflammatory mediators are elevated in OA, including reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Damaged articular cartilage remains a challenge to treat due to the limited self-healing capacity of the tissue and unsuccessful biological interventions. This highlights the need for better therapeutic strategies to heal damaged articular cartilage. Ozone (O3) therapy has been shown to have positive results in the treatment of OA; however the use of O3 therapy as a therapeutic agent is controversial. There is a perception that O3 is always toxic, whereas evidence indicates that when it is applied following a specified method, O3 can be effective in the treatment of degenerative diseases. The mechanism of action of O3 therapy in OA is not fully understood and this review summarizes the use of O3 therapy in the treatment of damaged articular cartilage in OA.
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Iron (Fe) toxicity is recognized as one of the most widely spread soil constraints for rice production especially in West Africa. Oryza glaberrima the cultivated rice species that originated from West Africa is well-adapted to its growing ecologies. The aim of this study was to identify the promising O. glaberrima accessions tolerant to Fe toxicity from the 2106 accessions held at the AfricaRice gene bank. The screenings were conducted over a four-year period and involved evaluating the entries under Fe-toxic field conditions in West Africa, selecting good yielding accessions and repeating the testing with newly selected lines. Three accessions (TOG 7206, TOG 6218-B and TOG 7250-A) were higher yielding than O. sativa checks under stress but with similar yields under control conditions. These accessions yielded over 300g/m2 under both Fe toxicity and control conditions. In conclusion, these materials could be used as donors in breeding programs for developing high yielding rice varieties suited to Fe toxicity affected areas in West Africa.
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This study aimed to produce inexpensive 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) in a non-sterile latex rubber sheet wastewater (RSW) by Rhodopseudomonas palustris TN114 and PP803 for the possibility to use in agricultural purposes by investigating the optimum conditions, and applying of wood vinegar (WV) as an economical source of levulinic acid to enhance ALA content. The Box–Behnken Design experiment was conducted under microaerobic-light conditions for 96h with TN114, PP803 and their mixed culture (1:1) by varying initial pH, inoculum size (% v/v) and initial chemical oxygen demand (COD, mg/L). Results showed that the optimal condition (pH, % inoculum size, COD) of each set to produce extracellular ALA was found at 7.50, 6.00, 2000 for TN114; 7.50, 7.00, 3000 for PP803; and 7.50, 6.00, 4000 for a mixed culture; and each set achieved COD reduction as high as 63%, 71% and 75%, respectively. Addition of the optimal concentration of WV at mid log phase at 0.63% for TN114, and 1.25% for PP803 and the mixed culture significantly increased the ALA content by 3.7–4.2times (128, 90 and 131μM, respectively) compared to their controls. ALA production cost could be reduced approximately 31times with WV on the basis of the amount of levulinic acid used. Effluent containing ALA for using in agriculture could be achieved by treating the RSW with the selected ALA producer R. palustris strains under the optimized condition with a little WV additive.
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Finite mixture modeling is one of the most rapidly developing areas of statistics due to its modeling flexibility and appealing interpretability. Gaussian mixture models have been popular among researchers for decades proving their usefulness in various applications. However, when Gaussian mixture components do not provide an adequate fit for the data, more general models must be considered. Traditional remedies for deviation from normality include employing a more appropriate distribution as well as transforming data to near-normality. Merging both approaches by introducing a mixture model with components derived from the multivariate Manly transformation is proposed. Such mixture models show good performance in modeling skewness and have excellent interpretability. Forward and backward model selection algorithms are proposed to choose an appropriate multivariate transformation. At each step of these algorithms, a model with the specific combination of skewness parameters is estimated by means of the expectation–maximization algorithm. The developed technique is carefully illustrated on synthetic data and applied to several well-known datasets, with promising results.
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A small plasmid designated pCS36-4CPA with a size of 5217 base pairs and G-C content of 50.74% was isolated from Citrobacter sp. 36-4CPA. The origin of replication (ori) of the plasmid was identified as a region of about 800bp in length with an identity of 67.1% to the ColE1 plasmid at the nucleotide level. The replication region contained typical elements of ColE1-like plasmids: RNA I and RNA II with their corresponding −10 and −35 boxes, a single-strand initiation site (ssi), and a lagging-strand termination site (terH). As seen in other ColE1-like plasmids, pCS36-4CPA carried mobilisation machinery that include mobABCD genes but it did not possess the rom gene. Analysis of the multimer resolution site (mrs) was performed and XerC and XerD binding sites were identified. Also, the 70-nt transcript Rcd of pCS36-4CPA was predicted and similarity of the transcript’s secondary structure with those of the ColE1-family was shown. The cargo module of pCS36-4CPA contained three open reading frames (ORFs). Two of them (ORF5 and ORF6) showed no significant homology to any known gene sequences but contained putative THAP DNA-binding (DBD) and type II restriction endonuclease EcoO109I domains. The seventh open reading frame (ORF7) encodes YhdJ-like DNA modification methylase. The region highly homologous to pCS36-4CPA was found in the Salmonella phage SE2 genome.
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Nonlinear manifold learning algorithms, such as diffusion maps, have been fruitfully applied in recent years to the analysis of large and complex data sets. However, such algorithms still encounter challenges when faced with real data. One such challenge is the existence of “repeated eigendirections,” which obscures the detection of the true dimensionality of the underlying manifold and arises when several embedding coordinates parametrize the same direction in the intrinsic geometry of the data set. We propose an algorithm, based on local linear regression, to automatically detect coordinates corresponding to repeated eigendirections. We construct a more parsimonious embedding using only the eigenvectors corresponding to unique eigendirections, and we show that this reduced diffusion maps embedding induces a metric which is equivalent to the standard diffusion distance. We first demonstrate the utility and flexibility of our approach on synthetic data sets. We then apply our algorithm to data collected from a stochastic model of cellular chemotaxis, where our approach for factoring out repeated eigendirections allows us to detect changes in dynamical behavior and the underlying intrinsic system dimensionality directly from data.
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In this paper, a coupled map car-following model is extended to two-lane traffic system. Based on it, the numerical simulations for one stop and series stops situations are performed respectively under the open boundary condition. The evolution of traffic jam and corresponding energy consumption are then explored and compared each other. Additionally, the influences of the lane changing rule and control scheme on traffic jam and energy consumption are investigated separately. The results show that lane changing rule and control scheme are found not only to suppress the traffic jam but also to reduce the energy consumption. The control scheme exhibit better behavior than lane changing rule does in suppressing traffic jam and reducing energy consumption in two-lane traffic system. The outputs of these findings demonstrate the potential of the proposed model to be applicable to evaluate the control schemes for suppressing traffic jam and reducing energy consumption in real traffic condition.
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Given a many-to-one bi-modal transportation network where each origin is connected to the destination by a bottleneck-constrained highway and a parallel transit line, we investigate the parking permit management methods to minimize traffic time cost and traffic emission cost simultaneously. More importantly, the optimal supply of parking spots is also discussed in the policies of parking permit. First, we derive the total travel costs and emission costs for the two cases of sufficient and insufficient parking spot provisions at the destination. Second, we propose a bi-objective model and solve the Pareto optimal parking permit distribution, given a certain level of parking supply. Third, we investigate the optimal parking supply in the policy of parking permit distribution, with the objectives of minimizing both total travel cost and traffic emission. Fourth, we provide a model of optimizing parking supply, in the policy of free trading of parking permits. Finally, the numerical examples are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of these schemes, and the numerical results show that restricting parking supply at the city center could be efficient to reduce traffic emission.
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