Filter Results
9412 results
Students who study intensively in one of Japan's ‘cram schools’ and/or spend excess time on electronic devices such as video games are in a sedentary state much of the time, and this may affect their physical fitness. We investigated whether there are relationships among obesity, physical fitness and academic achievement in Japanese students after controlling for socioeconomic and behavioral confounding factors.
Data Types:
  • Slides
  • Image
  • Tabular Data
  • Document
Oxysterols are oxygenated forms of cholesterol or its precursors. They are formed enzymatically and via reactive oxygen species. Oxysterols are intermediates in bile acid and steroid hormone biosynthetic pathways and are also bioactive molecules in their own right, being ligands to nuclear receptors and also regulators of the processing of steroid regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) to their active forms as transcription factors regulating cholesterol and fatty acid biosynthesis. Oxysterols are implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple disease states ranging from atherosclerosis and cancer to multiple sclerosis and other neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. Analysis of oxysterols is challenging on account of their low abundance in biological systems in comparison to cholesterol, and due to the propensity of cholesterol to undergo oxidation in air to generate oxysterols with the same structures as those present endogenously. In this article we review the mass spectrometry-based methods for oxysterol analysis paying particular attention to analysis by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS).
Data Types:
  • Slides
  • Image
  • Tabular Data
  • Document
In vertebrates, the rejection of allografts is primarily accomplished by cell-mediated immunity. We recently identified four IFNγ isoforms with antiviral activity in ginbuna crucian carp, Carassius auratus langsdorfii. However, involvement of the IFNγ isoforms in cell-mediated immunity, especially in T cell function remains unknown. Here we investigate expression of the IFNγ isoforms and effects of administration of recombinant IFNγ (rgIFNγ) isoforms in ginbuna scale allograft rejection. All four IFNγ isoforms showed significantly higher expression with the progression of graft rejection. Administration of rgIFNγrel 1 but not rgIFNγrel 2, rgIFNγ1 nor rgIFNγ2 enhanced allograft rejection. The number of CD4+ and CD8α+ cells increased in early stages of rejection, while sIgM+ cells were higher than controls at day 0 and 5 in the rgIFNγrel 1 administrated group. Expression of IFNγ1 and IFNγ2 mRNA was significantly up-regulated by rgIFNγrel 1 administration, while that of IFNγrel 1 and IFNγrel 2 was not. These results suggest different contributions of the four IFNγ isoforms toward the immune responses comprising allograft rejection.
Data Types:
  • Slides
  • Image
  • Tabular Data
– The development of effective therapies for cartilage protection has been limited by a lack of efficient quantitative cartilage imaging modalities in preclinical in vivo models. Our objectives were two-fold: first, to validate a new contrast-enhanced 3D imaging analysis technique, equilibrium partitioning of an ionic contrast agent-micro computed tomography (EPIC-μCT), in a rat medial meniscal transection (MMT) osteoarthritis (OA) model; and second, to quantitatively assess the sensitivity of EPIC-μCT to detect the effects of matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor (MMPi) therapy on cartilage degeneration.
Data Types:
  • Slides
  • Image
  • Tabular Data
The chemical and microbial composition of urban air particulate matter (PM) displays seasonal variation that may affect its harmfulness on human health. We studied the in vitro inflammatory and cellular metabolic activity/cytotoxicity of urban air particulate samples collected in four size-ranges (PM10–2.5, PM2.5–1, PM1–0.2, PM0.2) during four seasons in relatively clean urban environment in Helsinki, Finland. The composition of the same samples were analyzed, including ions, elements, PAH compounds and endotoxins. In addition, microbial contribution on the detected responses was studied by inhibiting the endotoxin-induced responses with Polymyxin B both in the PM samples and by two different bacterial strains representing Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) was exposed to the size segregated particulate samples as well as to microbe samples for 24h and markers of inflammation and cytotoxicity were analyzed. The toxicological responses were dependent on the dose as well as size range of the particles, PM10–2.5 being the most potent and smaller size ranges having significantly smaller responses. Samples collected during spring and autumn had in most cases the highest inflammatory activity. Soil components and other non-exhaust particulate emissions from road traffic correlated with inflammatory responses in coarse particles. Instead, PAH-compounds and K+ had negative associations with the particle-induced inflammatory responses in fine particles, suggesting the role of incomplete biomass combustion. Endotoxin content was the highest in PM10–2.5 samples and correspondingly, the largest decrease in the responses by Polymyxin B was seen with the very same samples. We found also that inhibitory effect of Polymyxin B was not completely specific for Gram-negative bacteria. Thus, in addition to endotoxin, also other microbial components may have a significant effect on the toxicological responses by ambient particulate matter.
Data Types:
  • Slides
  • Image
  • Tabular Data
Amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide oligomerization plays a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and Aβ oligomers are collectively considered an appealing therapeutic target for the treatment of AD. However, the molecular mechanisms leading to the pathologic accumulation of oligomers are unclear, and the exact structural composition of oligomers is being debated. Using targeted and quantitative mass spectrometry, we reveal site-specific Aβ autocleavage during the early phase of aggregation, producing a typical Aβ fragment signature and that truncated Aβ peptides can form stable oligomeric complexes with full-length Aβ peptide. We show that the use of novel anti-Aβ antibodies raised against these truncated Aβ isoforms allows for monitoring and targeting the accumulation of truncated Aβ fragments. Antibody-enabled screening of transgenic models of AD as well as human postmortem brain tissue and cerebrospinal fluid revealed that aggregation-associated Aβ cleavage is a highly relevant clinical feature of AD.
Data Types:
  • Slides
  • Image
  • Tabular Data
  • Document
This study assessed whether male fetal gender increases the risk of maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and investigated the association with placental weight.
Data Types:
  • Slides
  • Tabular Data
Sleep disturbances are among the most disabling non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease. The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus and basal ganglia are likely involved in these dysfunctions, as they are affected by neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease and have a role in sleep regulation. To investigate this, we promoted a lesion in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus or substantia nigra pars compacta of male rats, followed by 24 h of REM sleep deprivation. Then, we administrated a dopaminergic D2 receptor agonist, antagonist or vehicle directly in the striatum. After a period of 24 h of sleep-wake recording, we observed that the ibotenic acid infusion in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus blocked the so-called sleep rebound effect mediated by REM sleep deprivation, which was reversed by striatal D2 receptors activation. Rotenone infusion in the substantia nigra pars compacta also blocked the sleep rebound, however, striatal D2 receptors activation did not reverse it. In addition, rotenone administration decreased the time spent in NREM sleep, which was corroborated by positive correlations between dopamine levels in both substantia nigra pars compacta and striatum and the time spent in NREM sleep. These findings suggest a new circuitry for sleep regulation in Parkinson's disease, involving the triad composed by pedunculopontine nucleus, substantia nigra pars compacta and striatum, evidencing a potential therapeutic target for the sleep disturbances associated to this pathology.
Data Types:
  • Slides
  • Image
  • Tabular Data
  • Document
The clinical course of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) shows great inter-individual differences. It is important to standardize the severity classification to accurately evaluate each patient׳s prognosis. In Japan, an original severity classification (the Japanese disease severity classification, JSC) is used. In the United States, the new multidimensional index and staging system (the GAP model) has been proposed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the model performance for the prediction of mortality risk of the JSC and GAP models using a large cohort of Japanese patients with IPF.
Data Types:
  • Slides
  • Image
  • Tabular Data
  • Document
Traditional sausages are often considered of superior quality to sausages inoculated with commercial starter cultures and this is partially due to the action of the typical house microflora. Penicillium nalgiovense is the species commonly used as starter culture for dry-cured meat production. Recently a new species, Penicillium salamii, was described as typical colonizer during salami seasoning. In order to understand its contribution to the seasoning process, two different experiments on curing of fresh pork sausages were conducted using P. salamii ITEM 15302 in comparison with P. nalgiovense ITEM 15292 at small and industrial scale, and the dry-cured sausages were subjected to sensory analyses. Additionally, proteolytic and lipolytic in vitro assays were performed on both strains. P. salamii ITEM 15302 proved to be a fast growing mould on dry-cured sausage casings, well adapted to the seasoning process, with high lipolytic and proteolytic enzymatic activity that confers typical sensory characteristics to meat products. Therefore, P. salamii ITEM 15302 was shown to be a good candidate as new starter for meat industry.
Data Types:
  • Slides
  • Image
  • Tabular Data
8