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The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum of the c-type ν8 band of 13C2HD3 was recorded for the first time at a unapodized resolution of 0.0063cm−1 in the wavenumber region of 830–1000cm−1. Through the fitting of a total of 1057 assigned infrared transitions using Watson’s A-reduced Hamiltonian in the Ir representation, rovibrational constants for the upper state (v8=1) up to five quartic centrifugal distortion terms were derived for the first time with a root-mean-square (rms) deviation of 0.00073cm−1. The band center of ν8 of 13C2HD3 was found to be 913.011021(55)cm−1. Ground state rovibrational constants up to five quartic terms of 13C2HD3 were also determined from a fit of 453 ground state combination-differences from the present infrared measurements with an rms deviation of 0.00072cm−1 for the first time. The uncertainty of the measured infrared lines was estimated to be ±0.0012cm−1. From the ground state rotational constants, the inertial defect of 13C2HD3 was calculated to be 0.06973(16)uÅ2, showing the high planarity of the molecule.
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The chloroplast genomes of green algae are highly variable in their architecture. In this article we summarize gene content across newly obtained and published chloroplast genomes in Chlorophyceae, including new data from nine of species in Sphaeropleales (Chlorophyceae, Chlorophyta). We present genome architecture information, including genome synteny analysis across two groups of species. Also, we provide a phylogenetic tree obtained from analysis of gene order data for species in Chlorophyceae with fully sequenced chloroplast genomes. Further analyses and interpretation of the data can be found in “Chloroplast phylogenomic data from the green algal order Sphaeropleales (Chlorophyceae, Chlorophyta) reveal complex patterns of sequence evolution” (Fučíková et al., In review) [1].
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In support of atmospheric remote sensing of Titan and jovian planets, we measured absorption cross sections of benzene (C6H6) in the 7–15µm region at temperatures between 235K and 297K. For this, high-resolution laboratory spectra of C6H6 were obtained using two cold cells (80cm and 2.07cm path length) configured to a high resolution Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer, Bruker IFS-125HR, at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The spectrum sets include 15 pure and 15 N2-broadened benzene spectra in the 630–1534cm−1 region, along with four additional spectra broadened by an H2(85%) and He(15%) gas mixture for the 630–740cm-1 region. From these spectra, temperature dependent benzene cross sections were obtained for gas phase benzene in the presence of N2 and (H2+He) at ambient pressures and temperatures down to 235K.
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The FTIR spectrum of the ν11 band of 13C2D4 was recorded at a resolution of 0.0063cm−1 in the 2130–2250cm−1 region. This band was perturbed by the unobserved ν2+ν7 band. By fitting 862 infrared transitions for the ν11 band with a rms deviation of 0.0024cm−1 using a Watson’s A-reduced Hamiltonian in the Ir representation including a Coriolis coupling constant, the rovibrational constants for the ν11=1 state and three rotational constants for the ν2=ν7=1 state of 13C2D4 were derived for the first time. The band centers of ν11 and ν2+ν7 were determined to be 2193.75982(25) cm−1 and 2184.613(11) cm−1 respectively.
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One strategy to safeguard endangered species against extinction is raising subpopulations in ex situ facilities. Feeding animals ex situ is difficult when their diet is cryptic. We present a combined molecular and behavioral approach to assess the diet of Achatinella, a critically endangered genus of tree snail, to determine how diet of captive snails differs from wild snails. Cultured snails are currently fed biofilms growing on leaf surfaces, as well as a Cladosporium fungus isolated from this same habitat. Amplicon sequencing of DNA extracted from feces of wild and cultured snails confirms that this Cladosporium is abundant in the wild (~1.5% of sequences), but it dominates the ex situ snails' diet (~38%) and the diet of captive snails is still significantly less diverse than wild snails. To test the hypothesis that snails have diet preferences, we conducted feeding trials. These used a surrogate snail species, Auriculella diaphana, which is a confamilial Oahu endemic, though non-federally listed. Contrary to our expectations we found that snails do have feeding preferences. Furthermore, our feeding preference trials show that over all other feeding options snails most preferred the “no-microbe” control, which consisted only of potato dextrose agar (PDA). PDA is rich in simple carbohydrates, in contrast to the oligotrophic environment of wild tree-snails. These results suggest further research should focus on calorie budgets of snails, devising new approaches to supplementing their ex situ diet and determining whether a wild diet is an optimum diet.
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Bus transit network planning is a complex process that is divided into several phases such as: line planning, timetable generation, vehicle scheduling, and crew scheduling. In this work, we address the timetable generation which consists in scheduling the departure times for all trips of each bus line. We focus on the Synchronization Bus Timetabling Problem (SBTP) that favors passenger transfers and avoids congestion of buses at common stops. A Mixed Integer Program (MIP) was proposed in the literature for the SBTP but it fails to solve real bus network instances. We develop in this paper four classes of valid inequalities for this MIP using combinatorial properties of the SBTP on the number of synchronizations. Experimental results show that large instances are solved within few minutes with a relative deviation from the optimal solution that is usually less than 3 percent.
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We present comprehensive derivations for the statistical models and methods for the use of pulsed gradient spin echo (PGSE) NMR to characterize the molecular weight distribution of polymers via the well-known scaling law relating diffusion coefficients and molecular weights. We cover the lognormal and gamma distribution models and linear combinations of these distributions. Although the focus is on methodology, we illustrate the use experimentally with three polystyrene samples, comparing the NMR results to gel permeation chromatography (GPC) measurements, test the accuracy and noise-sensitivity on simulated data, and provide code for implementation.
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Statistical numeracy, defined as the ability to understand and process statistical and probability information, plays a significant role in superior decision making. However, recent research has demonstrated that statistical numeracy goes beyond simple comprehension of numbers and mathematical operations. On the contrary to previous studies that were focused on emotions integral to risky prospects, we hypothesized that highly numerate individuals would exhibit more linear probability weighting because they would be less biased by incidental and decision-irrelevant affect. Participants were instructed to make a series of insurance decisions preceded by negative (i.e., fear-inducing) or neutral stimuli. We found that incidental negative affect increased the curvature of the probability weighting function (PWF). Interestingly, this effect was significant only for less numerate individuals, while probability weighting in more numerate people was not altered by decision-irrelevant affect. We propose two candidate mechanisms for the observed effect.
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We have taken laser-induced fluorescence spectra of jet-cooled nickel monofluoride formed in a laser-ablation molecular beam source. Dispersed-fluorescence spectroscopy confirms predictions by Hougen (2011) that the parity assignments of levels in the Ω=1/2 state 1570cm−1 above the ground state should be reversed from those given in Krouti et al. (2002). The quality of the high-resolution spectra was sufficient to measure the [22.9]1.5–X1.5 band for five isotopologues of nickel and the [22.9]1.5–[0.25]0.5 band for molecules containing 58Ni and 60Ni. The spectral line positions for each isotopologue were fit to the Hamiltonian model given by Hougen, which was extended to allow for calculation of the parity-splitting parameter in the ground state.
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Propionibacterium acnes is an anaerobic, Gram-positive, opportunistic pathogen known to be involved in a wide variety of diseases ranging from mild acne to prostate cancer. Bacterial small non-coding RNAs are novel regulators of gene expression and are known to be involved in, virulence, pathogenesis, stress tolerance and adaptation to environmental changes in bacteria. The present study was undertaken keeping in view the lack of predicted sRNAs of P. acnes KPA171202 in databases. This report represents the first attempt to identify sRNAs in P. acnes KPA171202. A total of eight potential candidate sRNAs were predicted using SIPHT, one was found to have a Rfam homolog and seven were novel. Out of these seven predicted sRNAs, five were validated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and sequencing. The expression of these sRNAs was quantified in different growth phases by qPCR (quantitative PCR). They were found to be expressed in both exponential and stationary stages of growth but with maximum expression in stationary phase which points to a regulatory role for them. Further investigation of their targets and regulatory functions is in progress.
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