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  • FIGURE 5. Longitudinal, histological sections of Euchonoides moeone n. sp. A, body, regenerating thorax; B, base of radiolar crown and collar, lateral view; C, same, frontal view; D, pre-pygidial depression and pygidium; E–F, belt on third abdominal chaetiger, G, sexual abdominal segments; H, J, details of glandular epithelium of belt of third abdominal chaetiger; I, detail of a mature oocyte and follicle cells. In A–B, D and I, the section plane is shown, where A refers to the anterior region, P to the posterior region, d dorsal zone and v ventral zone. Black arrows in A, E–G, I–J points to glandular belt on third abdominal chaetiger. Abbreviations: A1: abdominal chaetiger 1, A2: abdominal chaetiger 2, A3: abdominal chaetiger 3.
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  • FIGURE 11. Spathius critolaus Nixon, male, paratype; A. Habitus, lateral view, B. Habitus, dorsal view, C. Head, anterior view.
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  • FIGURE 4 Ptilohyale corinne sp. nov., male holotype: a pleopod 1; b pleopod 2; c pleopod 3. Scale bars: 200 µm.
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  • FIGURE 5. Tyloperla sinensis Yang & Yang, 1993 (male). a. Aedeagus, dorsal view. b. Aedeagus, ventral view.
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  • FIGURE 1. Map of the Parque Nacional do Caparaó and surroundings areas with the sampling sites.
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  • Algorithms employed in the example
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  • FIGURE 6. Atanatolica bandeira sp. nov., larva. 6A, case and larva, dorsal; 6B, larva, right lateral; 6C, head, thorax, and legs, dorsal; 6D, mandibles, ventral; 6E, setal patches of metasternum, ventral; 6F, right lateral hump sclerite, right lateral; 6G, right forked lamellae of segment VIII, right lateral; 6H, terminal segments, dorsal.
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  • Acanthamoeba castellanii results in Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK), which occurs mainly in contact lens user with poor eye hygiene. The findings of many in vitro studies of AK, especially the development of therapeutic drugs, need to be confirmed by in vivo experiments. For the establishment of an AK mouse model, in this study, A. castellanii cell suspensions (equal mixtures of trophozoites and cysts) were loaded onto 2-mm contact lens pieces to be inserted into mouse eyes that were scratched using an ophthalmic surgical blade under anesthesia; the eyelids of the mice were sutured. Keratitis symptoms were grossly observed, and PCR was performed using P-FLA primers for amplification of the Acanthamoeba 18S-rRNA gene from the mouse ocular tissue. The experimental AK mouse model, characterized by typical hazy blurring and melting of the mouse cornea, was established on day 1 post-inoculation. AK was induced with at least 0.3×105 A. castellanii cells (optimal number, 5×104), and the infection persisted for 2 months. In addition, PCR products amplified from the extracted mouse eye DNA confirmed the development of Acanthamoeba-induced keratitis during the infection periods. In conclusion, it is suggested that the present AK mouse model may serve as an important in vivo model for various future studies.
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  • FIGURE 2. Adult male habitus Anotia firebugia Bahder & Bartlett sp. n. A. body lateral view and B. body dorsal view, scale = 1mm.
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  • FIGURE 7. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees (1,000 replicates) based on the COI gene demonstrating the relationship of the novel taxon relative to other Otiocerinae.
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