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High dropout rates and low compliance to pediatric weight-management programs have been reported. Socioeconomic status (SES) and ethnicity have been suggested as potentially important determinants of dropout and non-compliance. This review aims to assess the association between SES, ethnicity and study- and intervention dropout and non-compliance among participants in pediatric weight-management programs.
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The growing need of antimicrobial agent for novel therapies against multi-drug resistant bacteria has drawn researchers to green nanotechnology. Especially, eco-friendly biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) has shown its interesting impact against bacterial infection in laboratory research. In this study, a simple method was developed to form Ag NPs at room temperature, bio-reduction of silver ions from silver nitrate salt by leaf extract from Ocimum gratissimum. The Ag NPs appear to be capped with plant proteins, but are otherwise highly crystalline and pure. The Ag NPs have a zeta potential of −15mV, a hydrodynamic diameter of 31nm with polydispersity index of 0.65, and dry sizes of 18±3nm and 16±2nm, based on scanning and transmission electron microscopy respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the Ag NPs against a multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli was 4μg/mL and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was 8μg/mL, while the MIC and MBC against a resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus were slightly higher at 8μg/mL and 16μg/mL respectively. Further, the Ag NPs inhibited biofilm formation by both Escherichia coli and S. aureus at concentrations similar to the MIC for each strain. Treatment of E. coli and S. aureus with Ag NPs resulted in damage to the surface of the cells and the production of reactive oxygen species. Both mechanisms likely contribute to bacterial cell death. In summary, this new method appears promising for green biosynthesis of pure Ag NPs with potent antimicrobial activity.
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The “shallowing hypothesis” suggests that recent media technologies have led to a dramatic decline in ordinary daily reflective thought. According to this hypothesis, certain types of social media (e.g., texting and Facebook) promote rapid, shallow thought that can result in cognitive and moral “shallowness” if used too frequently. The purpose of this study was to test key claims made by the shallowing hypothesis, while simultaneously advancing our general knowledge regarding the effects of social media usage. The relationships between texting frequency, social media usage, the Big Five personality traits, reflectiveness, and moral shallowness were examined in undergraduate students at a Canadian university (N=149). Participants completed an online questionnaire comprised of five measures that assessed their social media and texting behavior, use of reflective thought, life goals, personality dimensions, and demographic characteristics. Correlates of both texting frequency and social media usage were consistent with the shallowing hypothesis and previous literature; participants who frequently texted or used social media were less likely to engage in reflective thought and placed less importance on moral life goals.
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The work deals with an environmentally benign process for the synthesis of silver nanoparticle using Butea monosperma bark extract which is used both as a reducing as well as capping agent at room temperature. The reaction mixture turned brownish yellow after about 24h and an intense surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band at around 424nm clearly indicates the formation of silver nanoparticles. Fourier transform-Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy showed that the nanoparticles were capped with compounds present in the plant extract. Formation of crystalline fcc silver nanoparticles is analysed by XRD data and the SAED pattern obtained also confirms the crystalline behaviour of the Ag nanoparticles. The size and morphology of these nanoparticles were studied using High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) which showed that the nanoparticles had an average dimension of ∼35nm. A larger DLS data of ∼98nm shows the presence of the stabilizer on the nanoparticles surface. The bio-synthesized silver nanoparticles revealed potent antibacterial activity against human bacteria of both Gram types. In addition these biologically synthesized nanoparticles also proved to exhibit excellent cytotoxic effect on human myeloid leukemia cell line, KG-1A with IC50 value of 11.47μg/mL.
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Evolutionary approaches to understanding personality variation have proposed how general personality factors might be reframed in terms of adaptive tradeoffs, but many of these explanations remain speculative. The present research evaluates the relationships between the HEXACO general personality traits and evolutionarily-relevant variables tied to individual differences in mating characteristics and strategies. Participants (n=209) completed measures of the HEXACO traits, mate value, life history strategy, and sociosexual orientation (short-term mating orientation and long-term mating orientation). There was good support for a number of hypothesized relationships between mating-relevant personality constructs and HEXACO traits. Additionally, the constructs of mate value, life history strategy, and sociosexuality were significantly intercorrelated, indicating that they are not independent. Further work is needed to clarify those relationships, and differential relationships with HEXACO traits can aid in this work.
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To evaluate the barriers and facilitators for allied health professional's participation in pressure ulcer prevention.
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This work explains the synthesis of a new azo-Schiff base compound, derived from condensation between N-ethylcarbazole-3-carbaldehyde and 1,3-diaminopropane, followed by azo coupling reaction with the diazonium salt of 2-amino-4-methyl phenol. The newly synthesized azo-Schiff base was further reacted with the acetate salts of Copper, Cobalt and Nickel to give three coordination compounds. All synthesized compounds have been characterized through spectral analysis. The coordination compounds have been examined for their thermal and catalytic features. Good and moderate yields were obtained for the oxidation of styrene and cyclohexene. Thermal features of the ligand and its complexes have been explained and the results obtained have supported the proposed structures.
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On April 25, 2015, a destructive MW 7.8 earthquake struck the capital of Nepal, Kathmandu, killing more than 8800 people and destroying numerous historical structures. We analyze six coseismic interferograms from several satellites (ALOS-2, Sentinel-1A, and RADARSAT-2), as well as three-dimensional displacements at six GPS stations to investigate fault structure and slip distribution of the Gorkha earthquake. Using a layered crustal structure, the best-fit slip model shows that the preferred dip angle of the mainshock fault is 6±3.5° and the major slip is concentrated within depths of 8–15km. The maximum slip of ~6.0m occurs at a depth of 11km, 70km south east of the epicenter. The coseismic rupture extends ~150km eastward of the epicentre with a cumulative geodetic moment of 7.8×1020Nm, equivalent to an earthquake of MW 7.84. We also investigate the MW 7.2 aftershock on 12 May 2015 using another three postseismic interferograms from ALOS2, RADARSAT-2, and Sentinel-1A. The InSAR-based best-fit slip model of the largest aftershock implies that its major slip is next to the eastern lower end of the mainshock rupture with a similar maximum slip of ~6m at a depth of ~13km. This study generates various coseismic geodetic measurements to determine the source parameters of the MW 7.8 Gorkha earthquake and 12 May MW 7.2 afershock, providing an additional chance to understand the local fault structure and slip extent.
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The small stature of modern human hunter–gatherers, and the developmental mechanisms by which this morphology is obtained, has been the subject of intense debate. Similarly, the causes for the unique modern human life history, which combines high reproductive rates with extended growth and long lifespans, have remained elusive. Here I explore the possible influence of some abiotic factors (temperature, rainfall, evapotranspiration) on life histories in non-human primates (gestation length, interbirth interval, longevity) and enquire whether there exist commonalities that could shed light on the evolution of hominin life histories and its variation among Homo sapiens. After accounting for the effects of brain size and phylogeny, life history variables showed only moderate trends with abiotic variables. In contrast, the results were statistically highly significant when multivariate statistics and path analyses were employed, particularly for gestation length. Life histories apparently respond to actual annual evapotranspiration (AET) and annual precipitation, and their effects are contrasted; a habitat openness/aridity index was found a poor predictor however. This points towards a complex relationship between abiotic variables and primate biology. Rather than responding to any one environmental variable, it is tentatively concluded that primate energetics will respond to both, primary productivity of the habitat and environmental predictability (seasonality), which will then -in turn-modulate the pace with which primates reproduce and grow up. Against this backdrop the “unique” modern human life history pattern is, in fact, unsurprising: it probably has its origin in the ecological setting in which hominins evolved.
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