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This study aimed to explore fish consumption behavior and fish farming attitude of the Saudi households in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The survey was conducted in Sharurah province of Najran region. The data were collected through a well-structured questionnaire from 100 respondents residing in the province accordingly. Pearson Correlation Coefficient was used to see the significant and non-significant impacts of the two variables. The results showed that majority (37%) of the respondents fell in the age group of 25–34 and majority (35%) of the respondents have high level of education i.e. up to university level. The results also depicted that majority (31%) of the people consume fish and were aware of the nutritional value of fish in the study area. However, majority (85%) of the respondents were not satisfied by the fish price. The results further indicated that none of the respondents were engaged in fish farming activity i.e. they had no fish farms at their homes. Furthermore, majority (83%) respondents had no intentions to start fish farming at their homes in future. The study concludes that fish consumption and preference is high in the study area and people prefer fish more than chicken and meat for consumption purposes because of their knowledge regarding the nutritional value of fish; however, the age and educational level have negative opinion about fish price in the study area. The study recommends that proper policies should be formulated to educate people about fish farming (aquaponics) and its importance through fisheries extension services to enhance the interest of people in fish farming.
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Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) is a legume and it has been used as a spice throughout the world to enhance the sensory quality of foods. It is known for its medicinal qualities such as antidiabetic, anticarcinogenic, hypocholesterolemic, antioxidant, and immunological activities. Beside its medicinal value, it is also used as a part of various food product developments as food stabilizer, adhesive, and emulsifying agent. More importantly it is used for the development of healthy and nutritious extruded and bakery product. The present paper reviews about nutraceutical properties of fenugreek and its utilization in various product developments.
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Considerable attention is currently devoted to producing a cold-resistance pour point depressant (PPD) via the emulsification process. The aim of this study is to optimize the emulsification process parameter as to yield a stable emulsion. Shearing intensity, temperature and time of the emulsification were studied as the parameters to optimize the process. The influence of these parameters on the emulsion properties i.e. particle size, emulsion morphology and freeze–thaw stability was investigated. The particle size of the emulsion is reduced from 0.7103μm to 0.5185μm when shearing intensity increased and maximum emulsion stability was achieved by 120days at 5000rpm. It was also identified that the particle size and emulsion stability are smaller and longer respectively when the homogenization temperature increased. Emulsion produced at 80°C presented superior emulsion stability than other homogenization temperature. Prolonged homogenization time showed a positive effect on the emulsion stability from 20 to 30min. Morphological studies by microscopy illustrated that smaller and uniform emulsion particle was achieved. The results outlined that the optimum homogenization parameters are: stirring intensity, 5000rpm; homogenization temperature, 80°C and homogenization time, 30min.
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Mass attenuation coefficients and exposure buildup factors (EBF) for some ceramic hosts such as Hollandite (BaAl2Ti6O16), Perovskite (CaTiO3), Zirconolite (CaZrTi2O7), Apatite (Pb10 (VO4)4.8(PO4)1.2I2), and Zircon (ZrSiO4) for high level radioactive waste have been computed in the present paper. The mass attenuation coefficients for the Apatite were found to be the highest. The EBF for the Apatite were found the smallest in low-to-intermediate energy (<3 MeV). Neutron total macroscopic cross sections for the ceramic hosts were calculated for 2, 4.5 and 14.1 MeV using Geant4. Zircon for neutron low-energy (2 MeV) and Hollandite for high-energy (14.1 MeV) were found superior shielding materials. This study could be useful for radioactive waste management, handling, transportation, dose evaluation and other shielding requirements.
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This paper presents our study on the dependence of TCP downstream throughput (TCPdownT) on signal to noise ratio (SNR) for multiple users in an IEEE 802.11b Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) system. The study was carried out in small offices, open corridors and free space environments using an infrastructure based IEEE 802.11b WLAN while transmitting different quality of service (QoS) traffic all corresponding to different wireless multimedia tags. Models describing TCPdownT against SNR for different signal categories were statistically generated and validated. Our findings show a large variation in the throughput behaviour of the IEEE 802.11b WLAN system for the different categories of signals. We observed RMS errors of 0.938012Mbps, 1.047012Mbps, 0.65833Mbps and 0.452927Mbps for the general (all SNR) model, strong signals model, grey signals model and weak signals model respectively which were much lower than that of similar models with which they were compared. Comparing our results with a previous work on TCP upstream throughput showed that it is more accurate to investigate upstream and downstream throughput separately. Our models enable network designers and installers to predict the TCPdownT without the need to measure additional parameters other than the observed SNR which is already part of the normal network installation process.
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In this study, a calibrated hydrologic model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) interfaced with Geographical Information System (GIS) tool was used to study the effect of different sediment management methods in a watershed (12,992km2) upstream of Jebba Lake, Nigeria. Sediment management strategies considered are (i) reforestation of the watershed, (ii) application of vegetative filter strip (VFS) and (iii) construction of stone bunds. Cost analysis of implementing the selected erosion control measures within the watershed was also carried out to compare the cost effectiveness of each of the management strategies. The results showed that application of VFS, reforestation, and stone bunds to critical zones of the watershed reduced the sediment yield up to 65.6%, 63.4% and 12% respectively while the financial analysis of implementing reforestation, VFS and stone bunds revealed 84.9%, 73.3% and 70.5% reduction respectively in the costs to be incurred if sediments are allowed to accumulate in the dam. From this analysis, it can be concluded that the sediment management scenarios considered in this study are cost effective and sustainable when compared with the costs incurred in tackling the effect due to reservoir sedimentation. Overall, the study showed that hydrological models such as SWAT can be used to study strategies for water resource management. In addition, it can provide policy makers the decision support tools to evaluate the cost and benefits of adopting Best Management Practices (BMPs) particularly for sediment control in erosion prone watersheds.
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Two field experiments were conducted to determine the effect of boron foliar application and water stress on yield of wheat plant grown in calcareous soil during 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 seasons. The highest mean values obtained against boron application time were potential contributor to total grains mass by improving the plant height (99.42 and 98.32cm), spike length (11.86 and 11.72cm), number of spikelets m−2 (332.65 and 324.35), grain yield plant−1 (21.56 and 20.26g), 1000-grain weight (35.2 and 37.4g) and grain yield (1.87 and 1.85tonfed.−1), which were recorded at normal irrigation level (100% from the amount of water consumption for wheat) with boron spraying at booting stage (B1) in the first and second seasons, respectively. Furthermore, boron application significantly enhanced all studied growth traits under water stress levels (50% from the amount of water consumption for wheat) compared to B-untreated plants. Boron spraying at booting stage enhances also plant pigments contents recording its highest mean values under normal water level (100% from the amount of water consumption for wheat). The reduction in stress markers (proline and H2O2) and the enhancement of plant pigments content under water stress levels (50% from the amount of water consumption for wheat) by B spraying suggests an alleviating effect of boron foliar application to water stress in the test plant. This alleviating effect was more pronounced when B applied at booting stage. Therefore, booting stage was found to be the best time for boron application to get higher grains production and consequently, better economic returns of wheat.
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La clozapina es un antipsicótico que ha demostrado mayor eficacia que el resto de antipsicóticos en el tratamiento de la esquizofrenia, pero su uso está restringido por sus efectos secundarios, especialmente por su riesgo de agranulocitosis. Nos propusimos estudiar las variaciones en los leucocitos y neutrófilos en pacientes en tratamiento con clozapina e ingresadas en hospitalización psiquiátrica prolongada.
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Intracellular α-amylase was a special glycoside hydrolase in the cytoplasm. We cloned and expressed an intracellular α-amylase, Amy, from Paenibacillus sp. SSG-1. The recombinant enzyme was purified by metal-affinity chromatography, exhibited a molecular mass of 71.7 kDa. Amy exhibited unexpectedly sequence similarity and evolutionary relationships with alpha-glucanotransferase. The docked results of Amy with maltose showed it had similar catalytic residues with α-amylase and glucanotransferase. The substrate specificity experiment showed that Amy could hydrolyze typical substrates into glucose and maltose. It was noteworthy that Amy showed the catalytic capacity of cyclomaltodextrinase and pullulanase. Meanwhile, Amy could transfer sugar molecules and form maltotetraose upon the hydrolysis of substrates. These results indicated that Amy was a novel intracellular α-amylase with distinct catalytic ability characteristics of hydrolyzing glycogen/cyclodextrin/pullulan and transglycosylation. We deduced that Amy may play an important role in utilizing maltooligosaccharides that released from extracellular α-glucan or storage α-glucan (glycogen) in Paenibacillus sp. SSG-1.
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The present study aimed to characterize millet-pomace based pasta on the basis of functional, morphological, pasting and nutritional properties with control pasta (100% durum semolina). Functional pasta was developed by using blend of 20% finger millet flour, 12% pearl millet flour, 4% carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) and 64% composite flour containing durum semolina and carrot pomace. Nutritional analysis of developed pasta showed high content of minerals viz calcium, iron, zinc and dietary fiber compared to control pasta. The developed pasta showed better quality characteristics in terms of cooked weight, swelling index and water absorption. Color evaluation of developed pasta showed increase in L∗ and b∗ values. Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of developed pasta was significantly higher with respect to control. Also significant (p<0.05) variations were observed in pasting properties between pasta samples. Microstructure evaluation of cooked pasta showed better interaction between starch and protein matrix with addition of carboxy methyl cellulose gum.
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