Contributors:Rachel Wood, Federico Bernaldo de Quirós, José-Manuel Maíllo-Fernández, José-Miguel Tejero, Ana Neira, Thomas Higham
The majority of archaeological remains found at El Castillo in northern Iberia were excavated between 1910 and 1914 by Hugo Obermaier. Since the 1980s El Castillo has been studied through a detailed analysis of Obermaier's original excavation notes, the cleaning and study of the extant section, and the excavation of material in the shelter entrance. Radiocarbon dating of charcoal from the modern (1980s onwards) excavation suggested that unit 18, corresponding to Aurignacian Delta of the 1910s excavation, was significantly earlier than other Aurignacian assemblages in western Europe. Combined with a reanalysis of the lithic and osseous industry, these dates led to the suggestion that material in unit 18 and Aurignacian Delta was a transitional industry, showing a gradual transformation of the Mousterian into the Upper Palaeolithic. The conclusion has profound implications for understanding the appearance of the Upper Palaeolithic in western Europe. However, the theory has been heavily debated, with criticism focusing on the analysis of the lithic and bone assemblage as well as the chronology. We focus on the latter, and assess whether the original dates were accurate, whether they were well associated with the archaeology, and whether there was vertical and lateral variation in the age of the assemblages within unit 18 and Aurignacian Delta. New radiocarbon dates on humanly modified bone suggest that in the new area of excavation, unit 18 is found to be earlier than 42 cal kBP, with no evidence of material of a younger age. In contrast, in the old excavation area, Aurignacian Delta does include material of a younger age. This suggests that discussion of the Transitional Aurignacian can only include material from unit 18, in the new area of excavation.
Contributors:Gulzar Ahmad Nayik, Yogita Suhag, Ishrat Majid, Vikas Nanda
The study was intended to characterize three honeys (acacia, pine honeydew and multifloral) from high altitude Kashmir valley of India according to their macro minerals (K, Ca, Na and P), antioxidant properties and sugar parameters. The result for total phenolic content (22.68–59.84mg GAE/100g) and total flavonoid content (6.10–8.12mg QE/100g), revealed that honeys from Kashmir valley have high antioxidant activity. Principal component analysis (PCA), explained more than 81% of the variance. Four sugars were identified and quantified by HPLC, which include monosaccharides and disaccharides. Chemometric methods such as principal component analysis and linear discriminate techniques were applied on the data in order to differentiate the honeys. PCA explained more than 81% of the variance with the first two PC variables with minerals and antioxidant properties having highest discriminating power while LDA successfully classified all the unifloral honey samples.
The effect of autoclaving (120°C/30min), debranching (2% pullulanase/1h) and storage at 4°C (DS4) or 32°C (DS32) or 60°C (DS60) for 24h on starch fractions, functional, pasting, thermal and structural properties of sweet potato starch was investigated. Results showed that DS4 sample displayed the lower functional properties than other modified starches. Debranching showed a significant increase in the apparent amylose content of native starch from 18.56% to 25%. A higher yield of RS (28.76%) was observed in debranched starch stored at 4°C (DS4) due to the higher degree of retrogradation. All debranched starches showed a substantial decrease in pasting profile and higher gelatinization temperatures than in native starch. B+V X-ray diffraction pattern was observed in debranched starches with increased crystallinity value. The scanning electron micrographs of debranched starches showed rough plate-like surfaces with irregularly shaped structures were observed due to debranching and retrogradation during storage. The study concludes that a combination of autoclaving, debranching and subsequent storage at 4°C is best technique to produce a higher amount of resistant starch in the sweet potato starch.
Contributors:I. Fricke-Galindo, H. Jung-Cook, A. LLerena, M. López-López
Las reacciones adversas a medicamentos (RAM) son un problema de salud pública y una importante causa de morbimortalidad a nivel mundial. En el caso de los fármacos antiepilépticos (FAE), la presencia de RAM puede ser un impedimento para lograr el éxito terapéutico al dificultar la adherencia al tratamiento e impactar la calidad de vida del paciente. La farmacogenética busca la identificación de variantes genéticas asociadas a la seguridad de los fármacos. En este artículo se revisan los genes que codifican para enzimas metabolizadoras y transportadores de fármacos, así como en el sistema HLA asociados a RAM inducidas por FAE.
Contributors:R. Vijayaragavan, S. Mullainathan, P. Ambalavanan, S. Nithiyanantham
Waste recovery is very important for public health and from environmental and industrial perspectives. The use of waste as useful raw material is strongly recommended, since it reduces the negative environmental impact associated with landfill and preserves non-renewable nature. This paper describes the usability of rock residue powder as an additive raw material in ceramic product. In the present study, qualitative analysis was carried out to determine the major and minor constituent minerals present in ceramic bodies made from rock residue powder by X-ray diffraction and FT-IR spectroscopic techniques. Also to study the mineralogical and physico-mechanical characterization of ceramic bodies made from rock residue powder. The present study demonstrates the usefulness of the physico-mechanical properties and spectroscopic techniques in determining the quality of the ceramic samples made from 10–50wt.% of rock residue additives.
Contributors:Luke M. Healy, Marie-Christine Guiot, Amit Bar-Or, So-Yoon Won, Gabrielle Perron, Craig Moore, Vijayaraghava T.S. Rao, Jack P. Antel
This study examines the transcriptional profiles of human adult brain-derived microglia in response to in vitro activating conditions previously used to polarize systemic myeloid cells into M1 and M2 phenotypes. A comparative study is done with monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs), a myeloid cell type that also participates in disease relevant tissue injury and repair processes in the CNS. Current markers used to distinguish microglia and MDMs have been defined under homeostatic conditions. We observe that gene expression profiles of M1 microglia and MDMs overlap with an overrepresentation of immune-related pathways. M2 microglia and MDMs have distinct transcriptional signatures. Upregulated genes in M2 microglia favor neural-related pathways whereas upregulated genes in M2 MDMs are mostly involved in antigen presentation. Our microarray screen identifies candidate molecules that can potentially distinguish microglia and MDMs under all activation conditions. To be determined is how our observations made using conventional in vitro polarization translate into cellular responses to the complex combination of signals encountered in neurologic disease states.
The extent and persistence of the inequality of regional output is an important policy issue in China and its sources have been the subject of considerable empirical research. Yet we have relatively little empirical knowledge of the effects on the regional distribution of output of shocks to national macroeconomic variables such as GDP and investment. This is an important gap in the empirical literature since much government macroeconomic policy seeks to influence GDP using instruments such as investment expenditure. It is likely that such national shocks will have differential regional impacts and so affect the regional output distribution. Policy-makers need to know the sign, size and timing of such effects before making policy decisions at the national level. We simulate the effects of aggregate shocks on individual provinces' GDP within the framework of a vector autoregressive (VAR) model restricted in a manner following Lastrapes (Economics Letters, 2005). We use annual data from 1980 to 2012 to estimate the model which includes 28 of China's provinces and simulate the effects on provincial outputs of shocks to aggregate output and investment. We find great diversity of effects across the provinces with discernible geographic patterns. There is evidence that output shocks benefit coastal provinces with developed industrial structure, export-exposure and less reliance on SOEs; the opposite is found for the effects of an investment shock and we conjecture that this is likely to have been the result of the strong bias in central government investment policy in favour of the interior provinces during a substantial part of our sample period.
Many scholars have argued that the huge increase in regional inequality in China can be attributed greatly to the disparity in industrialization. This paper contributes to the literature by providing empirical evidence on the transitional dynamics of industrial output by employing a new framework of distribution dynamics analysis, namely, the mobility probability plot (MPP), and a county-level database made up of counties and county-level cities. The new framework can address several inadequacies of the traditional display tools used in the distribution dynamics literature. Stochastic kernel analyses are performed for the nation, the economic zones, and the provinces individually so as to provide an in-depth understanding of the evolution and convergence of industrial output. This study fills the gap in the literature and provides information on mobility of the county-level units, which can greatly aid the policy making process.
Contributors:Saikat Gantait, Suprabuddha Kundu, Prakash Kanti Das
The current survey exemplifies the achievements on experimental results of production of planting materials through in vitro direct or indirect organogenesis of genus Acacia. Several species of Acacia have been given due importance in tree tissue culture owing to their proven wasteland reclamation ability, ecological and economical significance. Plant cell, tissue and organ culture-based techniques have been employed in forest tree research for successful reforestation and forest management programs. The relevance of tissue culture methods has gained impetus to meet the growing demands for biomass and forest products. Ever since the last four decades, in vitro protocols are being developed with the aim to regenerate several woody species. This survey strives to serve as a compendium of various routine processes involving organogenesis of Acacia via in vitro; which would encouragingly be worthwhile for researchers to exploit this perennial woody legume with enormous multidimensional value, via more innovative approaches, in order to promote the cause for its improvement.
Contributors:Daniel Jäger, Thomas Kreuzer, Martina Wilde, Stefan Bemm, Birgit Terhorst
Landslide databases provide essential information for hazard modeling, damages on buildings and infrastructure, mitigation, and research needs. This study presents the development of a landslide database system named WISL (Würzburg Information System on Landslides), currently storing detailed landslide data for northern Bavaria, Germany, in order to enable scientific queries as well as comparisons with other regional landslide inventories. WISL is based on free open source software solutions (PostgreSQL, PostGIS) assuring good correspondence of the various softwares and to enable further extensions with specific adaptions of self-developed software. Apart from that, WISL was designed to be particularly compatible for easy communication with other databases.