Citation: James E. Lee, Manvendra K. Dubey, Allison C. Aiken, Petr Chylek, Christian M. Carrico (2020) Optical and chemical analysis of absorption enhancement by mixed carbonaceous aerosols in the 2019 Woodbury, AZ fire plume, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres (2020). DOI:10.1029/2020JD032399
Corresponding Author: James E. Lee (email@example.com)
Manvendra K. Dubey (Dubey@lanl.gov)
Allison C. Aiken (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Biomass burning emits mixtures of light-absorbing aerosols (black and brown carbon, BC and BrC, respectively) and purely-scattering organic aerosol (OA) whose optical properties evolve with aging. BC, BrC and OA interactions are complex and dynamic resulting in large uncertainty in their radiative forcing. We report microphysical, optical and chemical measurements of multiple plumes from the Woodbury Fire (AZ, USA) observed at Los Alamos, NM after approximately 11-18 hour atmospheric transit time. We sampled an intact plume with little entrainment as well as periods of more diffuse plumes that had mixed more with background aerosols. Mass absorption cross-sections (MAC) are enhanced by a factor of 1.8-2.6 greater than bare-BC at 870 nm and correlate with the organic coating mass suggesting lensing by non-absorbing coatings following a core-shell morphology. We observed larger MAC enhancement factors of 2.7-6.7 at 450 nm that are larger than core-shell morphology can explain and are attributed to BrC. MAC of OA (MACOrg) at 450 nm is largest in intact plumes (0.7 to 1 m2/g) and drops significantly as plumes mix with background aerosols. Chemical analysis of OA-coatings and bulk OA show self-consistent values of fC2H4O2 (a tracer of levoglucosan-like species) and is used to diagnose plume aging/mixing. We report a strong correlation between fC2H4O2 and MACOrg(450 nm) that indicates that BrC in the Woodbury Fire is co-emitted with levoglucosan and that fC2H4O2 tracks BrC primary aerosol. Our process level finding should inform parameterizations of mixed BC, BrC and OA properties in wildfire plumes in climate models.
-V3: update data following reviewers comments and re-analysis (2020-06-28)
-V4: update contributors, citation, removed embargo (2020-07-02)
Education for Design for Sustainability (DfS) is a complex process involving the need to develop critical competencies through various pedagogical approaches. The focus of this paper is teaching DfS at Product-Service System (PSS) level with and without design supports. DfS at PSS level presents a wicked and complex design problem for students as they are challenged to deal with interrelated issues which require cross-disciplinary and trans-disciplinary knowledge and expertise. It has been observed that there is significant difference between student (novice) designers and expert designers in defining and structuring wicked design problems. The difference arises because of higher information need, assistance in problem structuring and presentation along with process selection. Students, therefore, need pedagogy that can aid them in perceiving relevance of various factors involved to be able to locate interconnections. The available design supports for DfS have been designed keeping in mind expert designers. The question therefore arises, do sustainability-oriented analysis and design supports shape up student designers' learning experience effectively or not and how.
In this paper, we use the context of designing agricultural machinery with a sustainable PSS approach, a wicked and complex design problem. We investigate a group of fifteen undergraduate and postgraduate Design students' mental model to approaching DfS of agricultural machinery and its associated service ecosystem. The first scenario of the investigations is when they are just informed about the concepts of sustainability, sustainable development, and sustainability in the context of agriculture but given no design support in the form of a framework or guideline for performing the act of design. Next, we provide the students with an indicator-based DfS assessment and design guideline and observe the efficacy and efficiency of the same group of students in analyzing and ideating for the same agricultural machinery and its associated service ecosystem. We then examined the effectiveness and efficiency of a design support based DfS act by examining if the strength of the analysis and design has improved, the number of factual errors or misunderstandings reduced, and the quality of learning improved. The investigation concludes that using frameworks and guideline to aid DfS for students is very useful in structuring students' analytical and design skills, especially in transdisciplinary DfS projects. It also can reduce the number of factual errors and misunderstandings the students have during the analysis and design process. The students reported feeling more confident during their learning journey when provided with a set of design guideline.
Contributors:Spielhofer Reto, Thrash Tyler, Wissen Hayek Ulrike, Grêt-Regamey Adrienne, Salak Boris, Grübel Jascha, Schinazi Victor R.
This dataset contains physiological (skin conductance) and behavioral (choice) data for 14 audio-visual stimuli. Each stimuli is composed of the variable landscape type (LANDSCAPE) with seven levels, and the variable amount of renewable energy infrastructure (SCENARIO) with two levels. The audio-visual stimuli are provided as high resolution videos. In addition, the statistical analysis is also published here as R-code.
Supplemental material for publication titled - "Are the NCCN/SSO COVID-19 guidelines for delay in melanoma treatment associated with mortality risk?" to be published in Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Supplemental figure 1. Clinical variants of morphea: (A) plaque type on the upper back (B) linear (en coup de sabre) type (C) linear type with blaschkoid distribution (D) deep type accompanied with muscle atrophy (E) generalized type which showed isomorphic plaques covering the entire trunk.
Supplemental figure 2. The three patterns of sclerosis in morphea: (A) Top-heavy pattern; moderate to severe sclerosis in the papillary to the superficial reticular dermis, while below the mid dermis is relatively spared. (B) Bottom-heavy pattern; moderate to severe sclerosis below the mid dermis, while papillary to the superficial reticular dermis is relatively spared. (C) Full-thickness pattern; moderate to severe sclerosis throughout the whole dermis. (Hematoxylin-eosin stain: x40.)
Supplemental figure 3. Histopathological features associated with poor treatment response: (A) Severe degree of sclerosis, which showed extensive fibrosis into the deep dermis and subcutis. (B) Dense inflammatory infiltrates at the dermal-subcutaneous junction and adjacent fat tissue. (C) Presence of tissue eosinophils. (D) Prominent basal layer hyperpigmentation. (Hematoxylin-eosin stain: A, B and D x100; C x200.)
Supplement Table I. Definition and criteria for the extent of histologic sclerosis (global sclerosis score) and the pattern of sclerosis. (Modified from Walker D et al, JAAD 2017;76:1124-30., and Verrecchia F et al, Rheumatology (Oxford, England) 2007;46:833-41.)
Synthetic fecal marker concentration datasets, the scripts for SAS and R to fit these data to a G2 and a G2G1 digesta kinetic model, the methodological details for the creation of these synthetic data, and a summary table of the resulting parameters observed when fitting these data to G2 and G2G1 models with the SAS and R software.