Contributors:Karen Miyuki Asano, Sibele Pinheiro de Souza, Iracema Nunes de Barros, Giselle Razera Ayres, Sheila Oliveira Souza Silva, Leonardo José Richtzenhain, Paulo E. Brandão
Coronavirus Research Group, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of São Paulo, Av. Professor Dr. Orlando Marques de Paiva, 87, CEP: 05508-270, Cidade Universitária, São Paulo, SP, Brazil... Coronavirus... Oligonucleotides sequences for the detection of Bovine coronavirus, group A rotavirus and bovine NADH-dehydrogenase 5, showing the target region, melting temperatures (Tm) and amplicon sizes.
Contributors:Lei Sun, Gui-hong Zhang, Jing-wei Jiang, Jia-dong Fu, Tao Ren, Wei-sheng Cao, Chao-an Xin, Ming Liao, Wen-jun Liu
Genome size comparison among KQ6 and other coronavirus isolates
... Coronavirus... Radialized phylogenetic tree for coronaviruses. The nucleotide sequences were analyzed with MEGA program (version 3.1) by using neighbor-joining analysis. The full-length genome sequences were used for the phylogenetic analysis. Scale bar: 1000 nucleotide changes. BCoV: bovine coronavirus; HCoV-229E: human coronavirus 229E; IBV: infectious bronchitis virus M41; MHV: murine hepatitis virus strain A59; PEDV: porcine epidemic diarrhea virus; TGEV: transmissible gastroenteritis virus; SARS-CoV: severe acute respiratory syndrome.
Contributors:Marion L East, Karin Moestl, Viviane Benetka, Christian Pitra, Oliver P Höner, Bettina Wachter, Heribert Hofer
RT-PCRs for the differentiation between feline coronavirus (FCoV) type I and FCoV type II/canine coronavirus (CCV)
... Comparison of coronavirus serum antibody titers determined by an indirect immunofluorescence assay for 28 adult hyenas (≥24 months of age) and 7 cubs (≤12 months of age) (Mann–Whitney U-test, U = 139.5, P = 0.08). The central line marks the median titer, each box shows the range of 50% of the values around the median, and the vertical lines indicate the total range of values.
... Phylogenetic relationship between coronavirus isolates from a spotted hyena (HYENA) in the Serengeti National Park, feline enteric coronavirus (X80799), feline infectious peritonitis virus (X06170), canine coronavirus (AF116247, AB017789, AF116245), and the canine coronavirus vaccine strain CCVInSAVC-1 (A22884). The unrooted maximum-likelihood tree (−lnL = 1581.61) based on the 429bp segment of the 5′ region of the S gene (Posch et al., 2001) was recovered under the best-fit model (HKY + G) selected by hLRTs in Modeltest Version 3.06 (Posada and Crandall, 1998). Base frequencies: A = 0.3042, C = 0.1875, G = 0.1908, T = 0.3175; transition/transversion ratio: 1.6559; gamma distribution shape parameter: 0.2864. Numbers at nodes represent the percentage of 100 bootstrap replicates.
... Coronavirus... Percentages of homology between three amplification products of a positive hyena fecal sample and feline and canine coronavirus reference strains
Contributors:Jose M Sanchez-Morgado, Scott Poynter, Timothy H Morris
Phylogenetic tree of spike protein of canine and feline coronaviruses. Phylogenetic tree was constructed by the protein sequence parsimony method (protpars) using Phylip 3.6 through the Phylogeny Interface Environment (PIE) at the Rosalind Franklin Centre for Genomics Research. Bootstrap values were calculated on 1000 replicates randomising the input order 41 times. The tree was rooted with MHV A59, SARS Tor2 and IBV Beaudette. FIPV, feline infectious peritonitis virus; FCoV, feline coronavirus; CCoV, canine coronavirus; MHV, mouse hepatitis virus; SARS, severe acute respiratory syndrome; IBV, infectious bronchitis virus.
... Canine coronavirus
Contributors:S.K.P. Lau, A.K.L. Tsang, S. Shakeel Ahmed, M. Mahbub Alam, Z. Ahmed, P.-C. Wong, K.-Y. Yuen, P.C.Y. Woo
Phylogenetic tree constructed from complete genomes of BufCoV and other members of Betacoronavirus lineage A (top). Tree was constructed by maximum likelihood method using general-time-reversible model including proportion of invariable sites with gamma-distributed substitution rates and bootstrap values calculated from 100 trees. Betacoronavirus 1 indicated at right. Boldface type indicates 2 strains of BufCoV with complete genomes sequenced in this study. SACoV, sable antelope coronavirus (EF424621); GiCoV, giraffe coronavirus (EF424623); ACoV, alpaca coronavirus (DQ915164); WtDCoV, white-tailed deer coronavirus (FJ425187); SDCoV, sambar deer coronavirus (FJ425189); WbCoV, waterbuck coronavirus (FJ425186); BCoV, bovine coronavirus (DQ811784); BufCoV, buffalo coronavirus; DcCoV, dromedary camel coronavirus (KF906249); CRCoV, canine respiratory coronavirus (JX860640); HCoV OC43, human coronavirus OC43 (AY391777); PHEV, porcine haemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (DQ011855); ECoV, equine coronavirus (EF446615); RbCoV HKU14, rabbit coronavirus HKU14 (JN874559); ChRCoV, China Rattus coronavirus HKU24 (KM349742); HCoV HKU1, human coronavirus HKU1 (AY597011); MHV, murine hepatitis virus (FJ647223); RCoV, rat coronavirus (FJ938068). Genome organization of BufCoV (bottom). Position of transcriptional regulatory sequences of each gene is indicated. ORFs between spike (S) and envelope (E) gene are magnified to show differences between two BufCoVs. ORF1ab are represented by green boxes. Haemagglutinin-esterase (HE), S, E, membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N) are represented by red boxes. Putative accessory proteins are represented by blue boxes.
Contributors:Annabel G. Wise, Matti Kiupel, Roger K. Maes
Percent amino acid sequence identities between coronavirus nucleocapsid proteins
... Sequence of the extreme 3′ 2496 nucleotides (with partial sequence of the 3′ noncoding region) of the FECV-MSU1 genome and deduced amino acid sequences encoded by the open reading frames. The sequence corresponding to primer 25 (see Materials and methods) is in italics. The conserved intergenic transcription-regulating sequence is underlined. The 10-base sequence corresponding to the conserved 3′ noncoding sequence in coronaviruses is in bold.
... Detection of FECV antigen by immunohistochemistry. (a) Positive red staining demonstrating the presence of coronavirus antigen in the cytoplasm of villar epithelial cells. (b) Negative reagent control tissue section stained with a murine monoclonal antibody of different specificity but with matching immunoglobulin concentration.
... Consensus PCR for coronaviruses... Coronavirus
Contributors:Kerstin Erles, Crista Toomey, Harriet W Brooks, Joe Brownlie
Primers designed from an alignment of the spike genes of bovine coronavirus (GenBank Accession No. AF058942) and human coronavirus, OC43 (GenBank Accession No. L14643)
... RT–PCR using consensus primers directed to the hemagglutinin/esterase gene of bovine and human coronavirus (strain OC43). The agarose gel electrophoresis shows PCR products of the expected size of 497 bp for the positive control (BCV) and four tracheal samples (T90–T105). BCV, bovine coronavirus positive control sample; A72, coronavirus-negative A72 cells; H2O, PCR mix without DNA; T90–T105, tracheal samples of study dogs; 1 kb, molecular size standard (Promega).
... Consensus tree for cDNA sequences from a 251-nucleotide region of the polymerase gene of 12 coronaviruses. The sequence obtained from the canine respiratory coronavirus is designated T101. The numbers indicate bootstrap values obtained by analysis of 100 data sets. BCV, bovine coronavirus; CCV, canine coronavirus; FIPV, feline infectious peritonitis virus; HEV, hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus; IBV, infectious bronchitis virus; MHV, mouse hepatitis virus; OC43, human coronavirus strain OC43; SDAV, sialodacryoadenitis virus; TCV, turkey coronavirus; TGEV, transmissible gastroenteritis virus; 229E, human coronavirus strain 229E; T101, canine respiratory coronavirus (PCR product from tracheal sample T101).
... Coronavirus... Comparison of the prevalence of respiratory disease in two groups of dogs: Dogs in group 1 were positive for serum antibodies to respiratory coronavirus on the day of entry into the kennel; dogs in group 2 were negative. The graph shows the percentage of dogs developing respiratory disease in group 1 compared to group 2 (P < 0.001). N is the total number of dogs in each group.
Contributors:Jan ter Meulen, Alexander BH Bakker, Edward N van den Brink, Gerrit J Weverling, Byron EE Martina, Bart L Haagmans, Thijs Kuiken, John de Kruif, Wolfgang Preiser, Willy Spaan, Hans R Gelderblom, Jaap Goudsmit, Albert DME Osterhaus
SARS coronavirus replication in lung tissue (A), shedding of SARS coronavirus in pharyngeal secretions (B), and macroscopic lung pathology (C,D) in ferrets
(A) SARS coronavirus titres in lung homogenates on day 4 after challenge shown as TCID50/mL. Horizontal bars indicate mean values. Dotted line shows lower detection limit of assay.(B) SARS coronavirus excretion measured by RT-PCR in pharyngeal swabs expressed as SARS coronavirus equivalents (eq), which equal TCID50. One animal in the CR3014 group, indicated by open circles, shed virus. (C) All CR3014-treated ferrets were free from macroscopic lung pathology, whereas all control ferrets showed multifocal lesions. (D) Left formalin-fixed lung (inflated with formalin by intrabronchial intubation)of a control ferret, with multifocal lesions (asterisks).
... Binding of CR3014 monoclonal antibody to viral peplomers of SARS coronavirus (A, B) and to HEK293T cells expressing glycoprotein spike of SARS coronavirus (C), and in vitro neutralisation of SARS coronavirus strain HK-39849 (D)
Incubation with CR3014 led to a dense gold-label of the outer peplomer region of SARS coronavirus strain Frankfurt 1 (A), whereas a control human IgG1 monoclonal antibody did not induce any label (B). Bar indicates 100 nm. (C) Filled histogram=glycoprotein spike of SARS coronavirus, strain Frankfurt 1. Open histogram=control plasmid.
Various ways of slowing the spread of coronavirus (4); ways coronavirus is transmitted (3); common symptoms of coronavirus (4); groups at higher risk of developing serious medical issues from coronavirus (3); vaccine to protect people from COVID-19 (2); most people infected with coronavirus recover without complications/develop serious complications that require intensive care (1); what people should do if they think they have symptoms of coronavirus (1); have enough information about how to protect self and family from coronavirus (1); stress/worry related to coronavirus has had negative impact on mental health (1); trust in various political figures to handle public health emergencies (3); trust in various figures/organizations to provide reliable information on coronavirus (6); worry about impacts of coronavirus (5); life disrupted by coronavirus (1); various actions taken because of coronavirus outbreak (5); impacts of coronavirus (4); been tested for coronavirus (3); health insurance coverage (2); health status (2); school closings due to coronavirus (2); impact on work/pay (4); work in health care setting (1); political partisanship (2); political ideology (1); registered to vote (1).