Study of Ras Mutations’ Prognostic Value in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: STORIA Analysis
Cancers (Basel). 2020 Jul; 12(7): 1919. Published online 2020 Jul 16. doi: 10.3390/cancers12071919 Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cause of cancer-specific death in both sexes in Western countries. KRAS mutations occur in about 50% of metastatic CRCs (mCRCs). The prognostic value of specific KRAS mutations still remains unexplored and unclear. Methods: Two hundred and forty KRAS wild-type and 206 KRAS/NRAS mutant consecutive unresectable mCRC patients with PS Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) 0 or 1, aged < 80 years, and with a life expectancy >3 months entered into this study. DNA was extracted from paraffin-embedded formalin-fixed tumour tissues, and it was sequenced with the Oncomine Solid Tumour DNA kit (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA). Data were analysed using the Torrent Suite Software v5.0 (Thermo Fisher Scientific). The primary outcome was the analysis of the prognostic role of different KRAS mutations in terms of overall survival (OS). Results: There were no significant differences among the most prevalent mutations (p.G12D, p.G12V, p.G13D, p.G12A, p.G12C, and p.G12S) in terms of age (<65 vs. ≥65 years), gender (male vs. female), grading (G1/G2 vs. G3), side of primary tumour (left vs. right), pT, and pN. At the median follow-up of 25.6 months, there were 77 deaths in KRAS-mutated patients and 94 in wild-type patients. Three homogeneous prognostic groups were identified: wild-type patients (group A, median survival: 27.5 months), p.G13D/p.G12A/p.G12V/p.G12D mutants (group B, median survival: 17.3 months), and p.G12C/p.G12S mutants (group C, median survival: 5.0 months, p < 0.0001 according to Log Rank test). Upon multivariate analysis, metastatic involvement and p.G12C/p.G12S KRAS mutation group C (vs. other mutations) emerged as independent prognostic variables for survival. Conclusions: We show that mutant KRAS is a negative prognostic factor and that p.G12C/p.G12S variants present the worst clinical courses. This information suggests a clear difference among KRAS mutations, and it will be useful to test potentiated and/or innovative therapeutic strategies in p.G12C/p.G12S metastatic CRC patients.