The Significance of Primary Incompatible Schema Differentiation in Women with Primary and Secondary Vaginismus Compared to Healthy Controls: A Comparative Analysis
Vaginismus, a prevalent female sexual dysfunction, profoundly impacts intimacy and relationships. This study, involving 1912 married women, explores the significance of primary maladaptive schemas in distinguishing primary and secondary vaginismus from healthy individuals. Utilizing the Young Schema Questionnaire Short Form (YSQ-SF) and SPSS 22, we identified significant differences in primary schemas among the groups (p < 0.01). Notably, secondary vaginismus exhibited elevated scores in emotional deprivation, mistrust/abuse, abandonment, defectiveness, shame, failure, dependence, vulnerability, self-sacrifice, and emotional inhibition schemas. These findings underscore the pivotal role of evaluating these schemas in diagnostics to tailor sexual dysfunction treatments effectively.
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Data Collection The primary data collection instrument utilized in this study is the Young Schema Questionnaire, a self-report tool designed to assess early maladaptive schemas (Young et al., 2003). The short form of this questionnaire consists of 75 items derived from the longer version through factor analysis. It measures 15 early maladaptive schemas grouped into five domains: (1) Disconnection/Rejection: Emotion deprivation, mistrust/abuse, abandonment, defectiveness, social isolation/alienation. (2) Impaired Autonomy and Performance: Dependence/incompetence, vulnerability to harm or illness, enmeshment/undeveloped self, failure. (3) Other-Directedness: Subjugation, self-sacrifice, approval-seeking/recognition-seeking. (4) Over-Vigilance and Inhibition: Emotional inhibition, unrelenting standards/hypercriticalness, entitlement/grandiosity. (5) Impaired Limits: Negativity/pessimism, emotional inhibition, unrelenting standards/hypercriticalness, entitlement/grandiosity. Each item is rated on a 6-point scale, ranging from 1 (completely untrue) to 6 (completely true). If an item receives a score of 5 or 6 (indicating "completely true") in a particular schema, it suggests the presence of that schema in the respondent's mind (Yang et al., 2003). Instrument Validity and Reliability The Yang Schema Questionnaire has demonstrated robust psychometric properties in previous studies. In a Greek context, Annis et al. (2018) reported strong internal consistency reliability, with Cronbach's alpha coefficients typically exceeding 0.80. Similarly, in an Iranian context, Khosravani, Najafi, and Mohammadzadeh (2020) found a Cronbach's alpha of 0.87 for the overall questionnaire, signifying excellent internal consistency and supporting its validity among a large sample of psychiatric patients. Data Analysis The data from the questionnaires were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistical methods with SPSS version 22 software (IBM Corp., 2013). Descriptive statistics, including frequencies, percentages, means, and standard deviations, were calculated to summarize the data. Inferential statistics involved stepwise regression analysis, normality testing, skewness and kurtosis assessment, and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). Data Management Data were stored securely, and confidentiality was maintained. Only authorized personnel had access to the data, which was stored for a specified period, following which it was securely destroyed.