IAT data

Published: 21 December 2021| Version 1 | DOI: 10.17632/2h47cdx7gh.1
Poh Ying Lim


Four different methods on dealing with the “not applicable” option on the IAT questionnaire.


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A cross sectional study that was conducted among undergraduate students from June 2020 until October 2020, in a public university in Malaysia. . The IAT questionnaire created by Kimberly Young (1998) was adopted(Young, 1998). This questionnaire has 20 questions with six Likert scale that include the following options from not applicable”, “rarely”, “occasionally”, “frequently”, “often” and “always”. There were four possible methods on calculating the total IAT, namely Method 1, Method 2, Method 3 and Method 4. For Method 1, “not applicable” option was not counted in the total scores of IAT. Only questions with answers from “rarely” until “always” were scored; scored 1 for “rarely” , scored 2 for “occasionally”, scored 3 for “frequently”, scored 4 for “often” and scored 5 for “always”. The total score were summarised and then converted to 100%. For example, if respondent A answered 18 questions, therefore total scores were the summation of 18 questions and then converted to 100%. For Method 2, “not applicable” option was scored as 0 followed with, rarely (scored 1) ,occasionally (scored 2), frequently (scored 3), often (scored 4) and always (scored 5). Total scores were summarisation of 20 questions, with ranging from 0 to 100%(Lu and Yeo, 2015b; Haque et al., 2016; Othman and Lee, 2017; Azhar and Yunus, 2020; Padmavathy KM, Hakim AR, Kalisyah A, Yuhanis Y, Irfan ZA, Luqman R, Arif Z, 2020). For Method 3, six Likert scale was converted to five Likert scale with assuming those respondents who answered “not applicable” option equals to “rarely”. This is assuming that, if the questionnaire does not have “not applicable” option, respondents might choose “rarely” as their answer. Total scores were ranging from 20 to 100(Zainudin, Din and Othman, 2013; Chong Guan et al., 2015; Ching et al., 2017; Rosliza et al., 2018; Mooi et al., 2019; Ying Ying et al., 2021). For Method 4, those questions that were answered with “not applicable” option were treated as missing data, therefore multiple imputation was used. Total scores were ranging from 0 to 100. Total scores from the four different methods were then categorized to four categories variable (IAT-4 categories), including low IA (0-30 scores), mild IA (31-49 scores), moderate IA (50-79 scores) and severe IA (80-100 scores). Further categorization to two categories (IAT-2 categories) with non-IA (low and mild IA: 0-49) and IA (moderate and severe IA: 50-100) was computed.


Universiti Putra Malaysia


Internet Addiction