The Effect of Arousal Caused by Spectators on Process and Outcome of Volleyball Service Skill

Published: 10-06-2020| Version 1 | DOI: 10.17632/2mkcphprfr.1
majid arab,
shahzad Tahmasebi Boroujeni,
Elahe Arabameri,
mehdi shahbazi,
Elham Shirzad


The Effect of Arousal Caused by Spectators on Process and Outcome of Volleyball Service Skill


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The Sports performance is a complicated combination of physical indicators, psychological factors, and training techniques. The Arousal is one of the psychological factors affecting athletes' performance. Individual’s performance will not be optimal without reaching the optimal level of arousal. Thus, the effect of arousal on athletes' performance is one of the important issue in sport researches. In particular, the impact of arousal on the process and outcome of athletes' performance is one of the major issues in sport that has not been investigated in previous researches. The athletes' level of arousal is manipulated by a variety of factors including spectators. The purpose of the present research is to investigate the effect of arousal caused by spectators on the process and outcome of volleyball service skill. The population of the study is the volleyball players of Iranian youth volleyball national team. A number of 17 players (Mean age=17.94 ± 0.75 years) participated in this research. At first, the players filled out the satisfaction form. Then, they completed the questionnaires of demographic characteristics, superior hand, state and competitive anxiety. The instrument used in the study was high frequency camera Sony cyber shot rx100 IV, that used to record the players' performance for biomechanical analysis of service performance. The tracker software was used to analyze the video performance of players' service skills. The subjects performed 10 services and their biomechanical factors included; distance to line, service height, service distance to line, landing distance to line and ball speed was recorded by camera. To ensure arousal, their heart rates were measured. The results of t-test showed that the arousal caused by the spectators has a significant effect on ball speed (P=0.035). Also, the arousal had a significant effect on the service score (P=0.008). Finally, the results showed that the spectators, also affect the outcome of the skill and cause the players to lose performance in the service performing process. The results revealed that the arousal affects the speed-accuracy tradeoff through which the players in the arousal condition reduce the speed of service and increase the accuracy of it.