Supplementary Data 1.0: The use of a deep learning model in the histopathological diagnosis of actinic keratosis: A case control accuracy study

Published: 19 September 2023| Version 2 | DOI: 10.17632/2t5pg25vkh.2
Julius Balkenhol, Maximillian Schmidt, Tim Schnauder, Johannes Langenhorst, Jean Le’Clerc Arrastia, Daniel Otero Baguer, Georgia Gilbert, Lutz Schmitz, Thomas Dirschka


The dataset contains supplementary figures and tables for the original article: The use of a deep learning model in the histopathological diagnosis of actinic keratosis: A case control accuracy study Abstract: Background Actinic Keratosis (AK) is a frequent dermatological diagnosis which contributes to a large proportion of routine dermatopathology. A current development in histopathology is in the digitization of specimens by creating whole slide images (WSI) with slide scanners. Deep Learning Models (DLM) have been introduced to radiology or pathology for image recognition but dermatopathology lacks available solutions. Objective Building on previous work about skin pathologies, this paper proposes a DLM following the U-Net architecture to detect AK in histopathological samples. Methods In total, 297 histopathological slides (269 with AK and 28 without AK) have been retrospectively selected. They were randomly assigned to training, validation and testing groups. Performance was evaluated by conducting a Case Control Accuracy Study on three levels of granularity. Results The DLM model achieved an overall accuracy of 99.13% on the WSI level, 99.02% on the patch level and an intersection over union (IoU) of 83.88%. Limitations The major limitations of this study were inclusion and digitization of AK from one laboratory and one scanner type. Conclusion The proposed DLM reliably recognizes AK in histopathological images, supporting the implementation of DLMs in dermatopathology practice. Given existing technical capabilities and advancements, DLMs could have a significant influence on dermatopathology routine in the future.



Universitat Bremen, Ruhr-Universitat Bochum Universitatsbibliothek Bochum, Universitat Witten/Herdecke


Dermatology, Histopathology, Actinic Keratosis, Deep Learning, U-Net


German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Climate Action (BMWK) and the European Social Fund (ESF) within the EXIST Transfer of Research