PERTURBO: A software package for ab initio electron–phonon interactions, charge transport and ultrafast dynamics
Perturbo is a software package for first-principles calculations of charge transport and ultrafast carrier dynamics in materials. The current version focuses on electron–phonon interactions and can compute phonon-limited transport properties such as the conductivity, carrier mobility and Seebeck coefficient. It can also simulate the ultrafast nonequilibrium electron dynamics in the presence of electron–phonon scattering. Perturbo uses results from density functional theory and density functional perturbation theory calculations as input, and employs Wannier interpolation to reduce the computational cost. It supports norm-conserving and ultrasoft pseudopotentials, spin–orbit coupling, and polar electron–phonon interactions for bulk and 2D materials. Hybrid MPI plus OpenMP parallelization is implemented to enable efficient calculations on large systems (up to at least 50 atoms) using high-performance computing. Taken together, Perturbo provides efficient and broadly applicable ab initio tools to investigate electron–phonon interactions and carrier dynamics quantitatively in metals, semiconductors, insulators, and 2D materials.