A new theory binds subatomic particles' mass to the square of the magnetic flux quantum, sets a new interpretation for mass and the significance of the wave function.

Published: 3 June 2024| Version 1 | DOI: 10.17632/3b3hn3688f.1
Israel Fried


The motivation for investigating the issues presented in this article stemmed from a need to understand better the relationship in long-established physics formulas and extract the information they provided using conventional methods. Based on the definition of magnetic flux quantization, which is based on a combination of fundamental physical constants, the Planck constant, and the particle’s elementary charge, this work explores the results that arise when this equation is combined with the equation of the Bohr-level electrostatic force acting on the electron, which leads to a new mathematical relationship between the combined expressions. The new relationship yields novel theoretical findings related to the known universal constants. Following this insight, the formalism developed in this paper indicates that the mass of the electron and other subatomic particles is associated with the magnitude of the square of the magnetic flux quantum, which makes up the particle. This conclusion is not as strange as it may seem, as the square of the magnetic flux quantum appears in the context of magnetic energy in a current loop and, according to Einstein’s special theory of relativity, energy is equivalent to mass. Another aspect described at the end of this paper demonstrates the connection between the square of the magnetic flux quantum through the Bohr radius and the significance of the wave function in the atom. The theoretical results are in full accordance with experimental results published by NIST CODATA 2018 that I’ve used, which validates the existence of the relationship.


Steps to reproduce

The formalism developed in this paper introduces a relationship between the masses of the electron, proton, and neutron and the square of the magnetic flux quantum. This relation was never known or probed. The Method used today to calculate the proton and neutron masses theoretically is based on the quantum chromodynamics theory of binding energy, which combines the kinetic energy of the quarks and the energy of the gluons within these particles, which requires a complicated calculation. The theory presented here calculates the electron, proton, and neutron masses in straightforward, nearly identical formulas, whose main component is the square of the magnetic flux quantum; the only difference between them is their Compton wavelength component, which is responsible for their different masses. Another formalism yields the proton's (hydrogen nucleus) and the neutron's radii directly from theory. The proton charge radius is a part of the actual proton radius. This theory presents a different approach to finding the proton's and the neutron's radii. It involves using universal constants such as Planck's mass and the universal gravitational constant, which ultimately yields a novel physical constant unfamiliar to science, in which the strong coupling constant in QCD is its derivative. Using this constant, it is possible to obtain the proton's radius. Combining the novel constant and the proton radius makes it possible to accurately calculate the Compton wavelength constants of the proton and the neutron, which are used to calculate their masses later. The theory also presents a novel way to describe the Planck mass and length and the gravitation constant through them. The gravitational constant is identified with Newton's law of universal gravitation. The new formula for the gravitational constant developed in this paper contains elements from the atomic domain (proton's mass and radius), which represent the quantum reality environment. This paper presents a method of analyzing long-established physics formulas to extract hidden information that reveals new variables combined with known variables. This method led to the discovery of the relationship of the particle's mass to the magnetic flux quantum. The technique is simple in light of the mathematical means and practical to obtain results.


Atomic Physics