Chemical compound identified in Bali honey (B2)

Published: 7 December 2023| Version 2 | DOI: 10.17632/3dwkxtbnyt.2
Saeed ullah,


The predominant bee species in Indonesia, namely Apis mellifera, Apis cerana, Apis dorsata, and Trigona species (stingless bee), are known for their high honey production throughout the country. Indonesia, particularly in regions like Bali, is renowned for its rich biodiversity, providing abundant opportunities for these bee species to forage for nectar. This abundance of diverse plant species contributes to the high-quality honey they produce. This research analyses the chemical compositions of wild honey samples collected from Bali. The primary objective is to identify the specific chemical compounds within honey samples obtained from distinct regions of Bali. In this study, two honey samples were collected from different regions of Bali.


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Sample collection The honey sample was collected at Bali Island in the Month of Aug 2023. Sample preparation The sample was prepared using a standard procedure as described by Alghamdi et al., (Alghamdi et al., 2020). A total of 2.5 g of the corresponding honey sample was dissolved in 25 ml of de-ionized water in a beaker. The resulting solution was then filtered through a 0.045 µm nylon filter into a 50 ml volumetric flask. A suitable volume of the filtered solution was then transferred into a Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) instrument for further analysis. Instrument The instrument used in the study is Agilent 6560 Ion Mobility Quadrupole Time-Of-Flight (Q-TOF) LC/MS. LCMS Quadrupole Time-Of-Flight (Q-TOF) LC parameters are LCMS QTOF mode with a mobile phase A 0.1 formic acid in water, mobile B 0.1 formic acid in acetonitrile injection volume are 1 µl with a flow rate of 0.3 ml/min, a column Zorbax Extend C18 (2.1 X 50mm/1.8micron). HyPURITY C18 column, and a gradient mobile phase of methanol and acetone, operated in negative-positive mode, were used to separate the chlorophylls and chemical compounds in both honey samples within 40 minutes with a flow rate of 1 ml/min. Detection was achieved at A660nm, and identification was based on retention time, mass spectra, and mass-to-charge ratio. Gradient elution for the experiment is given in (Table 1.) Table 1. Gradient elution phase for both targeted and untargeted analysis Time(min) A% B% 0 99 1 2 99 1 12 0 100 15 0 100 16 99 1 20 99 1 MS parameter set for the experiment is positive ion polarity, Gas temp 225 OC, Drying gas flow 12 L/min, Nebulizer 45 psi, Sheet Gas flow 12 L/min, Vcap 3500 V, MS TOF Fragmentor 150 V, and Oct 1 RF Vpp 750 V. Alghamdi, B. A., Alshumrani, E. S., Saeed, M. S. B., Rawas, G. M., Alharthi, N. T., Baeshen, M. N., . . . Suhail, M. (2020). Analysis of sugar composition and pesticides using HPLC and GC–MS techniques in honey samples collected from Saudi Arabian markets. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 27(12), 3720-3726.


Universiti Teknologi Malaysia


Mass Spectrometry, Food Biochemistry


The research funded by DIPA PNBP Udayana Universiti TA-2023/UNISERF No. B/775-4/UN14.4A/PT.01.03/2023.