Anti-inflammatory action of Cecropia pachystachya in the treatment of COPD and in silico study of the target enzymes of chronic respiratory diseases 5-LOX and α-1-antitrypsin
Cecropia pachystachya Tréc. is used by the ethnic population for the treatment of asthma, hypertension, inflammation, bronchodilator effect. This study aimed to identify the chemical compounds present in the ethanolic extract of the leaves of C. pachystachya and to verify its therapeutic action in the treatment of chronic pulmonary disease. The extract was prepared with 99% ethanol and the compounds were identified by HPLC. The phytochemical compounds were submitted to in silico tests of ADMET prediction and molecular docking with the target enzymes of chronic respiratory diseases (5-LOX and α-1-antitrypsin). The in vivo COPD induction test was carried out in wistar rats, exposed to cigarette smoke to induce inflammation and destruction of alveoli, being treated with ethanolic extract of C. pachystachya leaves and with a combination of beclomethasone dipropionate. By HPLC, the compounds chlorogenic acid (01), catechin (02) and coumaric acid (03) were identified. The ADMET properties were determined for each molecule, and all fall within the parameters of the rule of five and can be classified as drugs. Among the molecular docking calculations, the complexes with catechin showed better interaction energy values with the 5-LOX enzyme and α-1-antitrypsin. The ethanolic extract of C. pachystachya leaves was able to reduce lung inflammation and attenuate the destruction of lung alveoli, showing better results when used alone than when associated with beclomethasone dipropionate. It is evident that C. pachystachya has therapeutic action due to the presence of catechin. These results have scientific relevance and justify further studies to identify the mechanisms of action of this therapeutic activity.
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