Dataset_Do infants avoid a traversable slope leading into deep water?

Published: 12 July 2021| Version 1 | DOI: 10.17632/3h4np82rwx.1


The present study aimed to investigate the effect of age and locomotor experience on infants’ avoidance of submersion when a slope is offered to access the water. In addition, infants’ tendency to enter the water on the water slope was compared with their tendency to fall into the water on the water cliff (Datasets_Real Cliff / Water Cliff cross-sectional study; Seventy‐seven infants, 43 crawlers and 34 walkers were tested on the water slope. The Water Slope apparatus is a 10° inclined ramp installed in a swimming flume. The 1‐m‐long starting platform was above the water level and the 5‐m‐long ramp began out of the water (5 cm above water level), leading to a water depth of 75 cm (below the mothers’ feet). Infants’ safety was ensured by a track and pulley system with an attached harness. The pulley could move the entire length of the track, above the apparatus, following the infants’ movements without constraining them. A rope was tied to the infants’ harness and was held at its other end by the experimenter responsible for the infants’ safety. Infants were free to explore the apparatus and as soon as the infants’ chin touched the water they were pulled up and they were conducted to their mothers. The tests were ended if after 2.5 minutes after touching the water the infants did not reach the submersion point (i.e., chin touching the water).


Steps to reproduce

Data description: Sex – 1: male; 2: female Age – baby’s age at the trial day BellyCrawlingExp – belly-crawling experience: from belly-crawling onset day until hands-and-knees onset day. CrawlingExp – crawling experience: from the hands-and-knees onset day until the trial day (for crawlers) or until walking onset day (for walkers). CruisingExp – cruising experience: from cruising onset day until test day (for crawlers) or walking onset day (for walkers). WalkingExp – walking experience: since walking onset day util trial day. TotalLocExp – total self-produced locomotor experience: since the onset day of the first self-produced locomotor strategy (belly-crawling, hands-and-knees crawling, cruising or walking) until the trial day. Crawlers.Walkers – 1: crawlers; 2: walkers. AT (approaching time; in seconds): from the moment the experimenter released the infants until the moment the infants touched the water with any part of their body. Infants who did not move from the starting position during the first 60 s of the trial were placed by the experimenter next to the waterline with hands (in the case of crawlers) or feet (in the case of walkers) touching the water. RB.aTW – retreat behaviour after touching the water: if, after touching the water, the infants moved away from the water, placing the whole body on the dry platform at least once – 1: yes; 2: no. RB.aCWL – retreat behaviour after crossing the waterline: if, after crossing the waterline, the infants moved away from the wet part of the apparatus to the dry part at least once – 1: yes; 2: no. Distress: if the infants showed any signs of distress (e.g., fussiness, crying) during the trial, but could be calmed down, the testing proceeded – 0: never; 1: before touching the water; 2: after touching the water; 3: when in the water; 4: right before reaching submersion point. Avoidance.behaviour - 1: non-avoider; 2: avoider.


Infant Development