Roles of Natural Resources, Globalization, and Technological Innovations in Mitigation of Environmental Degradation in BRI Economies
The variable EF is calculated in terms of global hectares per capita, a total of carbon, farmland, built-up land, forest land footprint, fishing grounds, and grazing land. NR is the sum of forest rents, oil rents, coal rents, natural gas rentals, and mineral rents as a proportion of GDP. TE is determined by the number of patent applications. GLO is calculated as the political, social, and economic globalization index sum. The economic growth is computed in terms of constant 2010 US dollars. The GDP and NR data are acquired from the World Development Indicator. The data on EF is extracted from Global Footprint Network, and GLO data is sourced from KOF globalization Index. Lastly, the data on TE is collated from World Intellectual Property Organization.