Impact of Shoaling Ocean Surface Waves on Wind Stress and Drag Coefficient in Coastal Waters: Part I Uniform Wind
These are wind stress and drag coefficient data from a series of idealized numerical experiments in a two-part study that investigates the impact of shoaling ocean waves on the wind stress and drag coefficient in coastal waters. The data were generated using the two diagnostic flux calculation methods implemented in the WAVEWATCH III wave model (v5.16) (FLD1/2). In uniform wind conditions, our experimental data show that as water depth decreases, the drag coefficient gradually increases and reaches a peak value at a threshold depth where depth-induced wave breaking starts. This enhancement of drag is as much as 25%~40% relative to its deep-water counterpart and is mainly caused by steepening and slowing down of the dominant waves due to shoaling. The data also reveal a sensitivity of the drag coefficient to the bottom slope, which has not been recognized as an important parameter in the literature before.