Wellbeing during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic among adults in Nigeria: Associations with psychosocial and pandemic-related factors
Psychosocial factors including stress are determinants of wellbeing. However, there is a shortage of information about how these relationships were impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic among adults in Nigeria. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between wellbeing, and impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, psychological distress (anxiety and depression), and perceived social support among adults in Nigeria during the first wave of the pandemic. Methods: Wellbeing (assessed using the WHO Wellbeing Index) was the outcome variable while the explanatory variables included anxiety and depressive symptoms (assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), perceived social support (assessed using the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support) and perceived impact of the pandemic (assessed using perceived disruptions of life-domains). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between the outcome and explanatory variables. The models were adjusted for sociodemographic profile (highest level of education, employment status and payment status).
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Data was collected using an online survey for which participants were recruited through adverts promoted on social media platforms:"WhatsApp", “Facebook”, “Instagram” and “Twitter”. Adults (18 years and above) in Nigeria when completing the survey were eligible to participate in the study. The study instrument was presented as a Google form and its link was shared on the social media platforms. The Google form has a participants’ information section explaining the aim and objectives of the study, an informed consent page. Participants who consented to study participation then had access to the study’s question items. The question asked about the sociodemographic characteristics of respondents, the self-perceived impact of COVID-19 pandemic, mental health symptoms assessment, perceived social support and psychological wellbeing. Measures Sociodemographic section: This section elicited information on age at last birthday (in years), sex at birth, marital status (“single”, “married” and “divorced/separated/widowed”), level of highest educational achievement (“no formal education”, “primary”, “vocational”, “secondary”, “tertiary” (undergraduate and postgraduate)), employment status(“student”, “unemployed”, “retired” and “employed”) and income status (“no payment”, “partial-payment”, “full-payment”). Self-perceived impact of COVID-19 pandemic section: We assessed the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on ten life domains: “family”, “marriage/intimate relationships”, “parenting”, “friendships/social life”, “work”, “education,”, “recreation”, “spirituality”, “community life” and “physical self-care” by asking participants to rate the impact of the pandemic on these domains using a Likert-like scale with scores ranging from 1 (No disruption) to 7 (Serious disruption). Scores ranged from 10-70, with increasing scores indicating the more severe impact of the pandemic. The Cronbach’s alpha of the items that were used to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic was 0.91. Mental health symptoms and psychological wellbeing section: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) comprises 14 questions. Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) Social support was measured using the MSPSS (Zimet et al., 1988). It consists of twelve questions each rated on a 7-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (Very strongly disagree) to 7 (Very strongly agree). World Health Organization Five Well-Being Index Subjective well-being was measured using the World Health Organisation-Five Well-Being Index (WHO-5) (WHO, 1998).